Thursday, February 20, 2020
The Expansion of Multi-National Corporations in the UK - Essay Example This paper illustrates that the role of multinational corporations is perhaps the most critical aspect of evaluation regarding the impacts of the functioning of these corporations in the national systems of the host countries. Though different types of multinational companies choose to enter different economies with distinctive intention like market seeking, efficiency seeking, strategic asset seeking and resource seeking intentions, yet the intensity to which these companies influence the functionalities of the host industries and economies cannot be overlooked. Multinational corporations are recognized as the emerging internationally accepted class of business organizations which have the inherent potential to develop their own organizational field and influence the functioning of industries in the foreign country to a noticeable and recognizable extent. This also includes the major effects of the functioning of the multinational enterprises on the way employment practices and poli cies are conducted, modified and developed in the host countries in which these enterprises operate. Capitalism refers to an economic system in which the industries, trade systems and the means of production are entirely or largely controlled by the privately owned enterprises functioning in the economy. The main features of capitalism may include capital accumulation, private property, wage labor and the development of fully competitive sectors. There are different models and varieties of capitalism based on the role of the government in the country, the intensity of competition in the market, the influence of regulations and interventions on the economy and the scope of private and state ownership in the country. The various forms of capitalism may include welfare capitalism, free market capitalism or laissez-faire capitalism, state capitalism, Ã¢â¬Å"third wayÃ¢â¬ social democracy, crony capitalism, and corporatism. All of these models of capitalism have their unique character istics based on the employment of different degrees of dependency of the market economy, constraints in the way of free capitalism practices, public ownership structures and consideration of the state-sanctioned regulatory and social policies.
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
The fundamental points at issue between the Keynesian and classical traditions in UK - Essay Example It is known as Keynesian school of economic principle. It challenged classical economic thought that government has no role to play in correcting any economic disequilibrium. The great Depression helped in shaping many economic institutions including the Fed. Modern macroeconomics was also formed by the Great Depression. (Dornbusch and Fischer, 1994) This major economic recession originated in the U.S., but it spread to the rest of the world including the UK very soon. The Great Depression did last approximately for a decade. It was the period between early 1931 and March 1933 when the depression became great and spread to other nations. The period of Great Depression is mainly recalled for significant unemployment, massive poverty and political turbulence that it caused. For the period of 1931-1940, the rate of unemployment was hovering around 18 percent. During the period of Great Depression net investment was negative and there was a massive fall in consumer price index as well. B etween 1929 and 1933, the consumer price index dropped by 25 percent approximately. (Dornbusch and Fischer, 1994) Classical economists did not provide any elaborate explanations for such a huge economic downturn in developed nations like UK, USA and others. However, Keynes has recognized unchecked market movement as the prime reason behind such a great economic downfall. Classical economists mainly focused on the supply side of the economy to search for reason for this depression. However, Keynes held the aggregate demand side of the economy with great importance and recommended counter cyclical fiscal measures to improve aggregate demand. During 1933-1937, some recovery took place in the economy. Real GNP experienced a rapid growth at a rate of almost 9 percent annually. This rapid growth in GNP, however, fell to make a significant fall in the rate of unemployment. In 1938, another economic recession struck the economy and pushed unemployment rate up to 20 percent once again. The G reat Depression caused a number of nations to change their political structure as many economists including Keynes considered this severe recession a result of unchecked capitalism. (Dornbusch and Fischer, 1994) This paper will focus on the major points of differences between Keynesians and Classical school of thoughts placing focus on UK economy. 2. Keynesian versus Classical There are two major schools of thought in the field of macroeconomics- Keynesian and Classical. Like other developed nations, UK used to follow Classical policy tools to deal with its economic situation. However, all the Classical measures that used to place major focus on supply side with no government interventions failed drastically at the time of Great Depression of 1930s. This failure of Classical policy tools had persuaded UK economic policy makers to take into account suggestions by Keynes. The UK economy had once again set itself on the path of economic growth by moving from the way of unchecked market capitalism towards government regulated market economy. This section will focus on three core areas of differences between Keynesian and Classical- the area of aggregate demand, the role of investment and government intervention.. 2.1 Role of Aggregate Demand Keynesian Economics contradict Classical SayÃ¢â¬â¢s Law which stresses supply side of the economy. Keynesian Economics has emphasized on demand side and considered effective demand to be the most