Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Tourism Utah National Parks - Zion Research Paper

Tourism Utah National Parks - Zion - Research Paper Example Zion has some specific geological features that distinguish this national park from others. Zion is located at Colorado Plateau. Zion is characterized by a feature called Grand Staircase that formed as a result of uplift, tilting, and erosion of rock layers (The geology of Zion). Zion situates near the sea level and is seen as a flat basin in appearance. The eroded muds, sands, and gravels from surrounded mountains reached the basin and shaped Zion. It formed various layers at Zion. The mineral-laden waters gradually filtered through the accumulated sediments; and thereby the functioning of cementing agents like iron oxide, calcium carbonate, and silica have played a great role in transforming the deposits into stone (The geology of Zion). The volcanic activities at Zion region allowed the lava flow and cinder cones to form. In addition, there are ranges of other geological phenomena frequently occurring in the region. As discussed above, Zion National Park has many fascinating geolo gical as well as ecological features that attract large number of visitors to the park. Stynes reports that in 2006; there were 2.57 million recreation visits in Zion national park. Since thousands of people visit the park daily, all of them do not get staying facilities at park lodges. Therefore, several people depend on local lodges, motels, and cabins. In addition, the visitors greatly rely on local industries as they cannot get all their requirements inside the park. It greatly contributes to the sustainable growth of the local economy. For instance, as Stynes asserts, $113 million spent by park visitors assisted the economy to generate 2,432 job opportunities and increase the sale revenue to $143 million. The park itself employed large number of people and still creates new job opportunities. Hence, the Zion Park has considerably enhanced the overall development of the local economy. There are several common issues that affect national parks including Zion. Majority of the nati onal parks cannot use their resources to their fullest because of various reasons including lack of money, staff, and coordination (Top 10 issues facing national parks). National parks need to preserve the historic buildings and architectures as it reflects the culture of America; however, its maintenance costs are very high. In recent days, the areas surrounding national parks are being largely used for agriculture and living purposes; and these activities have adversely affected the wildlife to a large extent (Top 10 issues facing national parks). Foreign species’ invasion may affect park’s ecological balance as this process causes the extinction of natural species. In addition, construction activities also have become threats to the existence of national parks since these activities may lead to adverse environmental changes. Human caused noises also have a negative impact on the wildlife and it would negatively affect the sustainability of the national parks. At thi s juncture, the Soundscape Management becomes inevitable for the national parks. In order to protect the naturality of Zion national parks, various measures have been adopted. According to Havnes, these policies’ main intention is to protect the attributes of sound and thereby benefit the wildlife and nearly 3 million annual visitors to the park. As the writer describes, the park has been using ultra modern technologies to

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Music as a Tool for Learning

Music as a Tool for Learning The teaching of music in Primary Schools is an area of education that has seen dramatic changes in the last few decades. From a situation where music teaching was almost non-existent in some schools, and where in others young children were frequently alienated from music by being banned from choirs or told they were ‘tone-deaf’, music is now strongly represented within the National Curriculum. Current thinking emphasises that there is no such thing as a completely unmusical child, and the curriculum has moved from an emphasis on performance – often for the relatively gifted only – and passive listening to encompass composition, performance and critical appraisal part of the musical education of every child. This study considers music within the broader context of Primary education, considering the benefits of integrating music into other areas of the curriculum, and looking at the implications for learning bearing in mind that music in itself has been linked with improved behaviour and concentration (Glover and Ward 1998: 14), and thus may be considered conducive to a desirable learning environment for all subjects, and, furthermore, to the social and mental well-being of Primary school children. The development of modern Primary music education can be traced back to the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1987, although music at the time was considered low priority, and was not included in the Curriculum until 1991. When the National Curriculum was introduced, many teachers questioned its viability: it moved away from the topic-based teaching which had embraced a number of subjects without specifying distinct areas such as history or music or language. It was felt that by focusing on the topic rather than specific academic subjects, lessons held more interest for children. However, a number of educationalists had criticised the topic-based approach because of its lack of objectives and limited focus on specific achievement, and the National Curriculum sought to address this. Today, best practice is considered to be somewhere between these two approaches: subjects are distinct from each other, but a focus on the links between different disciplines is encouraged, and it is in this environment that incorporating music into cross-curricular activities can be particularly beneficial. The past few decades have seen a significant change in the delivery of music education. The Plowden Report (1967) recognised the importance of ‘non-specialist’ teachers being able to deliver music teaching : â€Å"It is to the musical education of the teacher that attention must first be given†¦ Comparatively few primary schools†¦can, for some time to come, expect to have a music specialist as a full-time member of the staff and it is even doubtful whether a specialist responsible for most of the teaching is desirable. It is the musical education of the non-specialist which, in our view, is the key to the problem.†(Web link: Plowden Report para. 690) It was over two decades before this thinking began to be properly implemented. In the meantime, schools relied on music specialists –teachers who were trained musicians, almost always skilled pianists –and this led, at best, to a detachment of music-teaching from the rest of the curriculum, delivered by the class teacher, and, at worst (where a specialist was unavailable), marginalised or non-existent music education. The development of a National Curriculum for music which is intended to be delivered by classroom teachers without any music specialisation has allowed it to be linked with other work more easily.More significantly still, delivery by the class teacher who, through far more exposure to the class than the ‘once-a-week music teacher’,understands the dynamic of the class and the individual pupils’situations, enables that teacher to deliver music teaching in a way that engages the class more readily and meets their specific needs. In 1991, the National Curriculum for Music was developed quickly,with limited research and, in many areas of music teaching, no accepted‘good practice’ that could be incorporated into the plan. In 2000, anew National Curriculum for Music was introduced that could take account of what had been learnt through the 1990s. The announcement of the government’s Music Manifesto in July 2004 suggested a further commitment to music education, with the aim that every child should have the opportunity to learn a musical instrument. Although this could be considered a move away from classroom music teaching, with the requirement for peripatetic instrumental teachers and the demands made on limited school time, the potential outcome is a future generation who consider a wide range of music to be part of their culture and experience, rather than something for their more gifted or more affluent classmates. In order to consider how music should be used across the Primary curriculum, some thought should be given to the ways in which children learn. There are various theories of learning: at the extremes are maturation, which suggests children should be left to learn through their own experiences, and behaviourism, which advocates learning through instruction from others. Many theories consider learning to be a combination of the two: Vygotsky’s theories reconcile the two approaches. Jean Piaget’s theories tend towards maturation and have been influential in education, though probably more so in the sciences than the arts. Through many years of observation, Piaget drew the conclusion that children establish a ‘framework’ within which they construct their vision of the world. As they experience something new, they try to explain it from the perspective of the framework (assimilation). Only if they cannot will their framework develop in some way(accommodation). Much of the experience Piaget considers should be self-generated and not instructional from teachers, parents or other authority figures. Piaget proposed four key stages of learning. For primary school teaching, the second and third stage are most relevant, covering the ages of around 2 to 7 (Pre-Operational) and around 7 to 11 (Concrete Operational) respectively. There is a lack of logic and a focus on the self in the Pre-operational stage, while in the Concrete operational stage, childr en are able to apply knowledge logically, manipulate information and understand the concept of others’ perceptions as well as their own. While Piaget’s theories are popular, many educators have reservations about them, particularly with regard to the specific age ranges linked to the stages. It is widely considered that such developments vary greatly in respect of age from child to child .Criticism of the Plowden Report has at times focused on its emphasis onPiagetian approaches (Gillard 2005). However, Piaget’s ideas are applied widely, including in music education, with its frequent focus on working together in ensembles (which helps develop understanding of others’ perspectives), or experimenting with the sounds that different classroom instruments can make (learning by experience). The behaviourist approach has lost favour in education: certainly in music, where it would be characterised by passive listening and instruction, it has been superceded by a more critical and analytical approach. Pavlov, famous for teaching dogs to salivate at the sound sofa bell, was a key figure in the development of behaviourist theory, and it has some place in musical education: for example, historical or cultural context of a piece of music is best explained by the teacher before pupils explore its musical qualities. Vygotsky’s theories, which suggest children learn by a combination of experience and instruction are perhaps more relevant to primary music education. Vygotsky took into account the social and cultural environment, particularly the influence of parents. He proposed that children’s development arose as a result of interactions with others. Vygotsky’s theories provide a link to theories regarding the learning of expression through the spoken word. A number of academic shave researched the area of music as a language which might be learned in a similar way to speech. In Barrett (1996), various research into the learning of oral language is explored to construct a framework in which successful learning of music might take place. Key to it is immersion: just as language is practiced all around the child, so too should music be, with parents demonstrating good practice as well as teachers. This parallels the Suzuki method of instrumental learning,where the parent learns alongside the child and reinforces at home what has been taught. Barrett endorses a method which leans towards maturation – â€Å"the learner is encouraged to assume responsibility for his own learning,with frequent opportunities provided for the continuous practice of skills† (Barrett 1996:72), with â€Å"the teacher available to assist when help is requested† (ibid). Yet there is also an element of behaviourism: â€Å"The experience of explaining, or teaching an item to another is often instrumental in clarifying the issues within the mind of the learner† (ibid: 69). In Mills’ exploration of the development of musical skills in the primary years (Mills 1996), a New Zealand study is discussed which supports Barrett’s theories. Through extensive fieldwork, Roger Bucktonfound that Polynesian children in New Zealand schools sung with moreconsistent vocal accuracy than those from European families. Millsattributes this to the difference in culture: â€Å"[Polynesian] children sing with their families and in church from anearly age. Children of European ethnic background†¦often arrive atschool with little background in singing.† (Mills 1996: 119) As will be seen, these various schools of thought have implications forboth the study of music and of other subjects, and hence forcross-curricular activity too. To consider music’s use across the curriculum, we must first consider its place as a subject in its own right. The National Curriculum addresses the following core areas: Performing skills: controlling sound through singing and playing Composing skills: creating and developing musical ideas Appraising skills: responding to and reviewing music Listening and applying knowledge and understanding. The scope of the National Curriculum for music is broad. By the end ofKey Stage 1, pupils are expected to reach a standard where they arecapable of organising sound, of using symbols to represent music, ofperforming with an awareness of others and of responding to the mood ofmusic. Beyond the practical, they are also expected to learn aboutvarious music from history and around the world – this provides auseful opportunity for cross-curricular work – and to understand thefunctions of music such as for dance, again offering cross-curricularopportunities. This kind of background knowledge continues to form a core part of thecurriculum at Key Stage 2, with the practical element further expandedthrough ICT, with the statutory requirement to â€Å"capture, change andcombine sounds†. Technological developments and greater affordabilitymean this is an area that has been practical to include in thecurriculum only in recent years, and for many teachers unfamiliar withmusic technology, this creates an additional challenge. However, it isagain a practical area to apply cross-curricular teaching in. At Key Stage 2, pupils are expected to develop a sense of musicalexpression along with more advanced ensemble skills. They should alsobe able to evaluate and suggest improvements to pieces of music by thetime they leave Primary School. This corresponds to a time when pupilsare developing their own tastes, influenced by a range of externalfactors such as family (particularly older siblings), or artistsspecifically marketed at ‘tweens’. An awareness of such subcultures canhelp the Primary school teacher to relate elements of the music lessonto them to create a particular resonance with pupils with suchinterests. A 2002 study by a team of researchers from Southampton Roehampton and Keele Universities carried out as part of the QCA’s (Qualifications andCurriculum Authority) Curriculum Development Project in the Arts andMusic Monitoring Programme produced some interesting findings(Hargreaves, Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant 2002). Many of the study’ssubjects were K S2 pupils. Across the study, which used interviews andquestionnaires to look at pupils’ and teachers’ attitudes to andengagement with school music teaching, children responded positively tothe performance aspect of the curriculum. Although many spent a gooddeal of time listening to music outside school (particularly popularmusic on the radio or on walkmans), little reference was made tolistening and appraising music in school music lessons, nor tocomposition. Given the government’s commitment to enabling every child to havethe opportunity to learn an instrument, it is perhaps surprising thatonly 17% of children thought this was something a school should offer,although the majority were learning or wanted to learn an instrument.While instrumental lessons may seem to offer limited scope forcross-curricular activities, and indeed may take up additional teachingtime, their indirect effect on other subjects is positive as thelearning of an instrument helps develop a range of skills includingco-ordination, concentration and self-expression. The Southampton/Keele study noted that a number of teachersexpressed concern over time and financial resources available toimplement a music programme. The time constraints suggest thatcombination of subjects through cross-curricular activity may be anattractive solution if managed appropriately. The study also showed that the use of external music specialists inPrimary music teaching was widespread and, furthermore, help fromspecialists was seen as vital to the success of the music curriculum.The aim that music teaching should be deliverable by non-specialistteachers is still not met entirely: â€Å"Technical demands of the curriculum are mentioned by many teachers:even those with musical qualifications and expertise feel unable tocover the entire spectrum of the music curriculum.† (Hargreaves,Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant 2002: Section 3) This is not expanded on. Teachers responded positively to theschemes of work, particularly as a tool for less musically-experiencedteachers, but it is possible that the breadth of the music curriculumis a challenge for teachers to deliver. The government’s increasedfocus on learning an instrument is likely to maintain this situation.It will be interesting to see whether, in future years, the generationof teachers that has benefited from the National Curriculum for Musicas pupils and who have had more opportunity for learning an instrumentthan previous generations of Primary teachers find it easier to deliverclassroom music lessons. The response from schools in the Southampton/Keele survey wasoverwhelmingly positive and it appears that the National Curriculum hasbrought classroom music teaching out of the margins by demonstratingthe many benefits of musical activity, notably those beyond musicalskills such as the social aspects and positive impact on behaviour andconcentration . In addition to focusing purely on music for a period within thetimetable, many teachers practise combining music teaching with othersubjects. This has roots in pre-National Curriculum teaching, wherelearning was frequently cross-curricular and based on a topic. Incertain situations, it appears that music is highly relevant in theteaching of another subject. This section explores the opportunitiesavailable and shows how there may be significant benefits for learningin all subjects in a cross-curricular lesson. Glover and Ward warn that there is a danger of attempting tocombine subjects in a way that has little benefit. They particularlydraw attention to themed songs which have no musical relevance: â€Å"In a topic on ‘food’†¦young children might be encouraged to sing ‘FoodGlorious Food’†¦ the links with the topic are spurious†¦the song may be apoor musical choice for a class who find difficulty with pitching thedemanding interval leaps.† (Glover and Ward 1998: 153-4) Glover and Ward also draw attention to the practice of linkingcomposition too closely to topic work, so that children are invited tocreate the sound of, for example weather, producing sound effectsrather than an appropriately-structured and thought-out piece of music(Glover and Ward 1998: 154). Bearing these points in mind, how can music teaching be productively combined with other subject areas? History lends itself to an exploration of music from other times. Astudy of the Tudors might incorporate a look at Tudor instruments andmusic, which provides further opportunities to consider Tudor life.Many pieces are dances, and pupils might participate in a dance of theera. Pupils can find out more about the function of the music, aboutwho would have been able to afford the instruments and who would haveplayed them. This might link with study of life for the wealthycontrasted with the majority of the population or of leisure pursuitsof the time. This helps reinforce what has been learnt about life inTudor times, while consideration of the stylistic qualities of themusic benefits musical understanding. Geography provides the chance to consider world music within its socialand cultural context rather than in isolation. Glover and Ward advocateexploring various musical styles from the same geographical area: â€Å"A little research goes a long way towards getting things intoperspective. Children will be interested in the detail and thedifferences between different music within a culture.† (Glover and Ward1998: 160) Through exploration of the elements which go to make a particularmusical style, children can learn about musical devices such as dronesor call-and-response structures. Simultaneously, by understanding therole of a type of music within a particular culture, they gain abroader understanding of different societies. Science lessons can provide a framework for the study of soundproduction. Through a focus on a range of instruments and othermaterials and their sonic properties (the production method of thesound, its qualities and pitch range, for example) causes pupils tofocus on the detail of sound. Composition activities linked toexperiments with sound production are enhanced: pupils consider thescope of their instruments in a broader range of musical parameters.Their scientific understanding of sound also benefits. Maths has particularly strong links with music, and various studieshave established a link between aptitude in maths and musical ability.Rhythm in music has a significant mathematical component: an obviousexample is the US note-naming system, where a crotchet is aquarter-note, a quaver an eighth-note and so on. Musical patterns offerthe opportunity to explore principles of symmetry, by playing a patternin its original form and in reverse. The inversion of a melody can belikened to reflection. A number of composers have incorporatedmathematical concepts into their music: many of these are rathercomplex for consideration at primary level, although the works ofXenakis may be useful for older Primary pupils. The construction of aparabola through a series of overlaid straight lines is visible in someof Xenakis’ scores, with lines performed as a string glissandi (slidesthrough pitch). Xenakis’ involvement with architecture, again using thescience of curves, may also be linked to lessons in this subject area.In addition to obvious connections with mathematics, Xenakis’ scoresare a useful example of how modern composers develop their own notationsystems and graphic scores, which may inspire children in compositionactivities. Literacy also has a close affiliation with music. The inflections inspeech are melodic and it has distinct rhythmic qualities. The settingof text to music draws on these connections. Explorations of languageand words – for example, rhyming words or short poem – can be takenfurther by turning them into chants or songs. A recent trend which underlines the links between language andmusic is the frequency with which children write a ‘rap’ rather than apoem. This could be taken further with a look at rap music payingattention to the dialect, fulfilling the requirement of the NationalCurriculum for English that children understand about language variety.However, any rap music should be selected with care due to subjectmatter and vocabulary in many rap tracks being unsuitable for use inschool. Narratives in literacy can also be explored through music, but itis important that children understand the concept of music without aprogramme and can link musical devices to punctuation: a cadence is afull stop, a musical phrase correlates with a spoken phrase (Glover andWard 1998: 166). The National Curriculum for Physical Education promotes the explorationof music through dance, and schools have a long tradition of music andmovement lessons. Dance and music together are included in thegovernment’s Schemes of Work: â€Å"Unit 31†¦In this unit children focus on popular dance styles ofdifferent eras. They explore a range of dances, using step and gesturepatterns, body shapes, contact work, and contrasts in dynamic andrhythmic patterning. They learn more about both dance style and music.†(Weblink: Schemes of Work: PE/dance) This unit has links to history and possibly geography too, so is truly cross-curricular. Response to music through movement is pertinent throughout our culture(the inclination to tap a foot to the beat, for example), and in youngchildren a physical response to music is common. Ben-Tovim and Boydinclude this as a criterion in a ‘Musicality Test’ to be applied whenconsidering whether a child should learn a musical instrument(Ben-Tovim and Boyd 1995: 18). Possibly the most difficult subject to establish effectivecross-curricular links in is art. While music and art can be seen asclosely connected, they both function in a similar role in terms ofproviding an outlet for self-expression through organisation ofelements, whether visual or aural. The temptation to play a piece ofmusic as an ‘inspiration’ for painting may result in the childinventing a programme for the music which is then represented in apicture. One must question the benefits of this regarding the verylimited extent to which it might benefit musical understanding, andalso its unintentional promotion of the idea that music must beprogrammatic. Also, is the music a background element compromising thechild’s concentration on the art, or vice versa? Overall, there is a wide range of opportunity to combine music withother subjects to the benefit of both curriculum areas concerned. Thepractical applications discussed above also fulfil a balanced model ofinstructional teaching and self-discovery: for example, the teacherpresents a recording of music from another era or land, and providesbackground information, but the pupils are encouraged to explore itscharacteristics for themselves. This promotes a blend of thebehaviourist and maturation theories discussed earlier. The opportunities for mutual support between subjects throughcross-curricular teaching demonstrates the importance of classroomteachers having adequate support and training to incorporate music intoother lessons; it is even more relevant in cross-curricular teachingthan in music lessons. By ensuring this is the case, benefits may beseen across almost all curriculum subjects. In addition to combining music with other subjects in order to teach itdirectly, music has further applications in the curriculum. The connections between language and music have a further benefit thatcan be utilised across various subjects. Text set to music is moreeasily committed to memory, and the use of songs to learn key facts iswidespread – for example, to learn numbers or the alphabet.Number-learning by song is effective, as one SEN teacher using singingin Maths comments: â€Å"Even if pupils don’t understand the concept of numbers, they can sing up to 10†, (Maynard 2004) Colwell’s research with Kindergarten children in the US (Colwell 1994)demonstrated that when children practised a reading text set to music,they read it with greater accuracy than a group who had practised thetext without its musical setting. However, although this researchsupports the findings of previous experiments, it used a sample of only27 subjects. Research undertaken by Dr Frances Rauscher, a former professional’cellist with a Ph.D. in Psychology, and her colleagues suggested alink between playing music to a group of subjects and a simultaneousincrease in their spatial-temporal reasoning abilities (Rauscher, Shawand Ky 1993). Since then, further research has been undertaken whichboth supports and questions these results. A further study in 1997 on preschool children showed a 34% increasein spatial-temporal reasoning tests among children who had receivedprivate piano and singing lessons compared to those who had not –including a group who had received private computer lessons. Theconclusion drawn by the researchers was that learning music was ofbenefit to learning potential in maths and science subjects, and moreso than computer skills. This research raises many questions. Firstly, it is widely thoughtthat the ideal age to begin learning an instrument is no younger than 7: â€Å"the second most common factor in musical failure was starting at thewrong time – too early†¦a six year old who goes on and on about wantingto play a musical instrument is experiencing the promptings of hisdeveloping instinct to make music, but he is not yet ready to do muchabout it.† (Ben-Tovim and Boyd 1995: 20) . It is therefore somewhat surprising that very young children engagedwith their music lessons in a way that increased their more generalmental capabilities. This has clear implications for the government’sMusic Manifesto; could earlier instrumental learning have a greaterbenefit in other subjects? The second issue is the findings themselves: as the computerlessons had little impact on test results while the music lessons madea significant difference, it is clear that private teaching alone isnot the cause of the improvement; rather it is the learning of music.However, it does not necessarily follow that by simply listening tomusic, a child’s academic potential in mathematics or any other subjectis enhanced. Rauscher’s research has created a great deal of interest bothwithin more general media and among psychologists and other academics.It has, to some extent, been mythologised with the label â€Å"The MozartEffect†. Rauscher’s findings have been disputed by a number of academics.Heath and Bangerter (2004) argue that the original 1993 research, oncollege students, showed only a small effect which was not prolonged,and that a number of research projects have failed to replicate theresults. They also demonstrated a link between the level of attainmenti n various states in the US and the amount of local newspaper coveragepromoting the Mozart Effect: the lower the attainment, the morecoverage. Heath and Bangerter attributed this to the recognition of aparticular problem and the possibility of a ‘quick fix’. In a number ofstates local government reflected media endorsement by subsidisingprojects to expose children to Mozart recordings, but it appears therestill needs to be more research in the area Rauscher herself has moved to clarify her research: â€Å"Our results on the effects of listening to Mozarts Sonata for TwoPianos in D Major K. 448 on spatial-temporal task performance, havegenerated much interest but several misconceptions†¦ the most common ofthese [is] that listening to Mozart enhances intelligence. We made nosuch claim. The effect is limited to spatial-temporal tasks involvingmental imagery and temporal ordering.† (Rauscher 1999) However, a number of studies have shown some evidence of a Mozarteffect in various different environments. Most relevant is Ivanov andGeake (2003) which found a Mozart Effect and a Bach Effect on Primaryschool children listening to music while undertaking a paper-foldingtask (again, this is demonstrating spatial-temporal competence ratherthan intelligence). This study also established that general musictraining was not a factor in the results – this suggests that playingmusic has a temporary effect on reasoning, and might not enhancelearning in other subjects subsequently unless music is played on thatoccasion. The Mozart Effect continues to be debated by academics because ofthe conflicting research findings. However, it is notable that limitedresearch has been done on the elements of music which might contributeto the effect, although reference to an unspecified study by Dr WilliamThompson (Weblink: Research relating to the ‘Mozart Effect’ (2)) notesthat the effect is evident when lively classical music, includingMozart and Schubert, is played, but not with slower music by Albinoni. Many teachers report using background music in a variety of situations with positive results: â€Å"For many years I have used music during lessons. It helps youngchildren relax in handwriting lessons, and helps their concentrationduring imaginative writing sessions.† (Hume 2004) It appears that there is certainly some evidence supporting playinglively classical music in a variety of class situations to boostpupils’ performance, and a number of teachers are using backgroundmusic in class and feel it to be beneficial. However, much research isstill needed in this area. Music teaching has a variety of uses within the curriculum for pupilswith special educational needs (SEN). The term SEN is used to refer topupils with special needs arising from a wide range of situations andconditions such as physical disability, emotional and behaviouralproblems, autism, school phobia, a background of abuse or stress ordyslexia. Many of these children may be academically gifted, others mayfind very basic concepts challenging. Music in SEN, as a result,fulfils a range of functions. For all SEN music lessons, there is the potential to cover areasincluded in the National Curriculum: listening and appraising,composing and performing. The nature of SEN teaching means that thesemay have to be adapted according to the needs of pupils. Cross-curricular activity can be useful tool: for example, whilepupils with concentration problems may struggle to sit and listen tomusic, they may be more receptive if asked to draw a picture respondingto music that is playing while they do so, although there can be adifficulty with children focusing on their art and barely noticing themusic. Perry (1995: 56) suggests using a 5 minute excerpt introducedwith a story – thus using literacy – to create an initial engagementbefore moving on to children drawing. Music may also be used as a form of therapy. For younger children,activities undertaken while standing in a circle are of particularbenefit in helping child a child with attention difficulties to engage.An activity might involve passing a teddy around a circle while musicplays until it stops, at which point the child holding the teddy has achance to play briefly on an instrument. The teddy helps those childrenwho might be resistant to the activity to accept it (Weblinks: Becta). For autistic children, music can contribute to establishing aroutine. With songs, for example, for lunchtime, for playtime and forgoing-home time, where the same piece of music is used consistently forthe same activity, singing can help maintain the sense of stability androutine which is particularly important for those with autism (Maynard2004). While musical activities can benefit children with specialeducational needs, care must also be taken not to cause a detrimentaleffect. Packe

Friday, October 25, 2019

Demands of the Virtual Classroom :: Teaching Education

Demands of the Virtual Classroom Preparing online courses is not easy. In a study by the NEA, 53% of participating instructors admitted that courses online take more time to prepare and deliver. Much of that time is devoted to weekly e-mail contact, a task that 83% stated is part of their regimen. Rarely is additional remuneration given to compensate for the heavier workload. (Newsgroup Message 6/23/00) The additional effort on the part of the instructors does not necessarily facilitate the process for the students. Successful participants must be disciplined, able to work on their own, can deal with uncertainty, and are not easily distracted. (PCC)(Kleiner) In addition, students must be prepared to endure setup difficulties, hardware malfunctions, and Internet traffic (Neal) in addition to the burden of the acquisition of the required technology. The question of whether the return of the student and instructor efforts is worthwhile remains unanswered. To date little empirical evidence exists that proves that electronic technology improves learning. David Noble, a technology historian from York University in Toronto, avers that identity formation is a process that can only occur face-to-face. (Neal) In fact, research has shown that the social interaction in traditional residential programs contributes to the intellectual and ethical development of undergraduates. For the simple dissemination of information where knowledge is passed hydraulically from instructor to student, Internet instruction seems to be an unsuitable methodology. (Neal) Such theories seem to prove out in a retention rate that varies anywhere from 20% to 97%.(Kleiner) Considering the Costs With such doubtable results emanating from greater effort on the part of both student and teacher, the question arises about why Internet classes are becoming so popular. The push seems to come from a joint effort on the part of software developers, legislators, and college administrators who are eager to be known for their technological strides. The resulting trends are demanding that many schools jump on the bandwagon to cater to the non-traditional students. The University of Phoenix has an enrollment of 68,000 students from 15 states, more than Princeton and Duke combined. That figure is expected to triple by the year 2002 and includes only students who are at least 23-years-old and employed.(Marcus, A Scholastic Gold Mine) Peter Drucker has predicted that such trends will result in the "end of the university within 30 years". (Neal). On the opposing side, however, the National Center for Educational Statistics has predicted that the investment may not produce the results that Peter Drucker forecasted.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Fast Food in Malaysia Essay

Restaurants have been around in some form for most of human civilization. But they usually catered to travelers. As far back as ancient Greece and Rome, inns and taverns generally served food to people who had a reason to be away from home. This trend continued until relatively recently. Although taverns and coffee houses were popular places to gather and share beverages in the 17th century, the idea of eating out for fun didn’t take off in Western society until the late 18th century. Although McDonald’s was the first restaurant to use the assembly-line system, some people think of White Castle as the first fast-food chain. White Castle was founded in 1921 in Wichita, Kansas. At the time, most people considered the burgers sold at fairs, circuses, lunch counters and carts to be low-quality. Many people thought hamburger came from slaughterhouse scraps and spoiled meat. White Castle’s founders decided to change the public’s perception of hamburgers. They built their restaurants so that customers could see the food being prepared. They painted the buildings white and even chose a name that suggested cleanliness. White Castle was most popular in the American East and Midwest, but its success helped give hamburger meat a better reputation nationwide. So, like cars, White Castle played an important part in the development of fast food. Image courtesy Brands of the World The McDonald brothers opened their redesigned restaurant in 1948, and several fast-food chains that exist today opened soon after. Burger King and Taco Bell got their start in the 1950s, and Wendy’s opened in 1969. Some chains, like Carl’s Jr. , KFC and Jack in the Box, existed before the Speedee Service System, but modified their cooking techniques after its debut. McDonald’s, which started it all, is now the world’s largest fast-food chain. According to the National Restaurant Association, American sales of fast food totaled $163. 5 billion in 2005 [ref]. The industry is growing globally as well. Total sales for McDonald’s grew 5. percent in 2005, and the company now has 30,000 franchised stores in more than 120 countries [ref and ref]. However, McDonald’s – and fast food in general – does not always get a welcoming reception around the world. McDonald’s restaurants have been attacked in several countries, including the United States, China, Belgium, Holland, India, Russia, Sweden and the U. K. Protestors have accused McDonald’s and other chains of selling unhealthy food, marketing aggressively to children and undermining local values and culture.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

“Philip Condit and the Boeing 777

The case study „Philip Condit and the Boeing 777: From Design and Development to Production and Salesâ€Å" deals with the launch and development key points of the Boeing 777 model in the 90s. Generally, the aircraft industry is described as a very risky one as failure is the norm due to high product development costs. Furthermore it consists of a rival duopoly of the survival jet makers Boeing and Airbus. The Boeing company’s history of producing jets can be split into two eras. In the 1920s, 1930s and during Worlds War II., it was a military contractor producing bombers and fight aircraft. Later on, in the 1950, Boeing became the world‘ s largest manufacturer of commercial aircraft. Their first jet was the 707 model. Although Boeing was very successful, Airbus remained a serious rival. In 1988, Boeing planned to upgrade the 767 model in order to meet the level of Airbus‘ competition which launched two new models. As Boeing had no 300-seat jetlines, nor plans to develop such a jet, the Executive Vice President Philip Condit proposed to design a 767 double-decker jet. To explore the risks, he tried to find out if the customers were interested in such a launch. But United Airlines rejected the idea of a 767 double-decker, as it had no chance against Airbus‘ new model transports. Instead, Condit was won over to develop a completely new commercial Boeing jet which would be called the 777 project. One of the main characteristics of the Boeing 777 jet was that it was a consumer driven product. In order to decrease the risk of developing the new jet, Boeing approved the project only until it obtained 68 firm orders of the 777 jet by the carrier United Airlines. Only then Boeing commited to the 777 program and the directors approved the close cooperation of the two companies. For the design and development phase Boeing introduced the „Working Togetherâ€Å" with eight more carriers. Furthermore Boeing 777 was a globally manufactured product, for which 12 international companies were contracted. Boeing split the risk of the new product on a family of planes consisting of different planes build around a basic 777 model. By that, the design included a maximum flexibility for future changes of the model according to customer preferences. Besides these facts, the 777 project delivered the first jetliner designed entirely by computers. Instead of old-fashioned two-dimensional methods, the sophisticated computer program „Catiaâ€Å" (computer aided three-dimensional interactive application) had been used. Furthermore, all team members were connected according to Catia, which made them be cross-functional. During the 777 project, Boeing implemented a new company culture, where assembly line workers were empowered and encouraged to offer suggestions and participate in the desicion making. Managers also payed attention to problems faced by their workers, such as safety concerns, childcare, etc. The Leadership and Management style changed from a secretive one to open communication among employees; from an individualistic mentality to teamwork. In the 1990 the new 777 aircraft program had been launched and in 1995 the first jet had been delivered, while in 2001 the 777s were flying in the service of major U.S. and international airlines. Although Boeing produced the most successful commercial jetliner, it was a risky project and its process contained unresolved problems. Problem statement The main concern of Boeing was its insufficiency to reach the competitive level of its only rival, Airbus. While Boeing had no plans to even develop a 300-seat jetline, Airbus had launched in 1988 two new successful models. Condit’s proposition of a modernization of the already existing 767 model by upgrading it to a double-decker jet, had been refused by United Airlines. United’s contra argument was that a Boeing 767 double-decker was no match to Airbus’s new model transports. Boeing’s challenge was to create a completely new commercial jet model which should not only be the preferred airplane in the aircraft industry, but at the same time be launched at a competitive price. The most costly and risky part of the development of an aircraft was the production of the jet engine. Its production could cost as much as producing the airplane itself. By deciding to develop a completely new 777 model instead of updating the older 767 model, a new engine had to be developed. Although Boeing had been strong in the 90s, the project still was risky. A failure of the costful new jetliner might have led to a decline of the Boeing company. The question was how to develop technological and managerial innovations to cut costs. Those innovations in aircraft design, manufacturing and assembly were supposed to update Boeing’s engineering production system and manufacturing strategies. The case focuses on efforts done to survive in the aircraft market by modernization, success and cost effectiveness. All efforts finally run to the question, if Boeing will achieve a better competitive position to Airbus. Data analysis The main problem of the company arouse because its latest, eight-year-old, wide-body twin jet 767 Boeing model, even if upgraded and turned into a double-decker, still couldn’t be a match to Airbus’s new 300-seat wide-body models (the two engine A330 and the four engine A340). If Boeing wanted to have future on the market, it quickly had to resolve this issue by planning a way of enhancing its competitive position relative to Airbus. Boeing was also being urged by the United Airlines and also by other airline carriers to develop a brand new commercial jet, which was even expected to be the most advanced airplane of its generation. The decision to be made in terms of this issue lies in the responsibility of Frank Shrontz, Boeing’s CEO, in 1988. The stakeholders to be further affected by it were the future customers of the 777 Boeing model – airline carriers from all around the world, like United Airlines. Also relevant to the outcome of Shrontz’s decision were the manager Philip Condit, put in charge for the 777 project, as well as all the others 10 000 employees and lower level managers, that were recruited to work on it. The situation was going to affect as well Boeing’s suppliers for structural components, systems and equipment, which were twelve international companies located in ten countries. As first constrain for resolving the issue we can note that Boeing’s production system and manufacturing strategies were outmoded and needed to be updated. In order to create an aircraft, which could compete with Airbus’s latest ones, Boeing first needed to revitalize their mass production manufacturing system. Airbus also was ahead of Boeing because of their use of the most advanced technologies, and therefore Boeing had to introduce leading edge technologies into its jetliners. If we look at Exhibit II in the business case, we will see the market share of shipments of commercial aircraft of Boeing, McDonnell Douglas (MD) (until 1997, before the merger with Boeing) and Airbus, for the period 1992 – 2000. The percentage numbers on the table show the competitive relationship between Boeing and Airbus, especially when they remain the only players in the industry in 1997. Airbus is steadily raising the percentage of its market share of shipment throughout the years, for Boeing’s misfortune respectively. From here we can extend more our understanding of the threat that Boeing had in the face of Airbus and also of the need for the CEO of Boeing to come up with a solution for how to strengthen its competitive position.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Stellers Sea Cow - Facts and Figures

Stellers Sea Cow - Facts and Figures Name: Stellers Sea Cow; also known as Hydrodamalis Habitat: Shores of the northern Pacific Historical Epoch: Pleistocene-Modern (2 million-200 years ago) Size and Weight: About 25-30 feet long and 8-10 tons Diet: Seaweed Distinguishing Characteristics: Enormous size; small, flexible head About Stellers Sea Cow Although its much less well known than the Dodo Bird or the Giant Moa, Stellers Sea Cow (genus name Hydrodamalis) shared the unfortunate fate of these famous birds. Widespread across the northern Pacific Ocean for hundreds of thousands of years, by the mid-18th century this giant, 10-ton ancestor of modern dugongs and manatees was restricted to the obscure Commander Islands. There, in 1741, a population of a thousand or so survivors was studied by the early naturalist Georg Wilhelm Steller, who remarked on this megafauna mammals tame disposition, undersized head perched on an oversized body, and exclusive diet of kelp (a type of seaweed). You can probably guess what happened next. As soon as word of Stellers Sea Cow got out, various sailors, hunters and traders made it a point to stop over at the Commander Islands and bag themselves a few of these gentle beasts, which were valued for their fur, their meat, and most of all their whale-like oil, which could be used to fuel lamps. Within three decades, Stellers Sea Cow had breathed its last; fortunately, though, Steller himself bequeathed his studies of live specimens on future generations of paleontologists. (Its important to realize that Stellers Sea Cow had been on the decline for tens of thousands of years before Europeans arrived on the scene; according to one theory, early human settlers of the Pacific Basin overhunted sea otters, thus allowing the unchecked proliferation of sea urchins, which feasted on the same kelp as Hydrodamalis!) By the way, it may yet be possible for scientists to resurrect Stellers Sea Cow by harvesting scraps of its fossil DNA, under a controversial research program known as de-extinction.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Child Develpoment in the four stages essays

Child Develpoment in the four stages essays From the day of your babys birth, he already has certain abilities and instinctive reactions. But he has a lot to discover and in his early years the gaps are made good by what he learns from his family- most of all, his mother. He learns with all his senses, but particularly by imitation and experience. Watching a babys body and mind grow is one of the delights of being a parent. At first the baby struggles to recognise the world around him by looking and listening. Then he reaches out to it: as his arms and legs grow strong, he begins to explore. Increasingly during his second and third years his personality reveals itself in the way he tries to control his world with his newly discovered skills. Firstly, physical changes in a child are usually the most obvious and significant developments in a childs growth. During the first 18 months the average child makes considerable gains in height and weight, begins teething, develops sensory distinction and begins to walk and talk. Sensory perception developments rapidly during the first three months of life. Research shows that newborns are capable of auditory and visual contrast. Within three months they can distinguish colour and form; they show a preference for complex and novel stimuli as apposed to simple and familiar stimuli. Newborns perform motor movements, many of which are reflexive. Soon after birth they gain voluntary control of movements. The major stages of locomotion are crawling, creeping and walking. The average infant walks (without support) between 13 and 15 months of age. Normal infants possess neurological systems that detect and store speech sounds, permit reproduction of these sounds and eventually produce language. Infants utter all known speech sounds, but only retain those heard regularly. Word-like sounds occur at 12 months and have meaning at 18 months. Gaining of complex language after 18 months is very rapid. ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Differential Reproductive Success in the Science of Evolution

Differential Reproductive Success in the Science of Evolution The term differential reproductive success sounds complicated, but it refers to a rather simple idea common in the study of evolution. The term is used when comparing the successful reproduction rates of two groups of individuals in the same generation of a species population, each exhibiting a different genetically determined characteristic or genotype. It is a term that is central to any discussion of natural selection- the cornerstone principle of evolution. Evolutionary scientists might, for example, want to study whether short height or tall height is more conducive to a species continued survival. By documenting how many individuals of each group produces offspring and in what numbers, scientists arrive at a differential reproductive success rate.   Natural Selection From an  evolutionary perspective, the overall goal of any species is to continue to the next generation. The mechanism is ordinarily rather simple:  produce as many offspring as possible to ensure that at least some of them survive to  reproduce and create the next generation. Individuals within the population of a species often compete for food, shelter, and mating partners to make sure that it is their DNA and their traits that are the ones passed down to the next generation to carry on the species. A cornerstone of the theory of evolution is this principle of natural selection. Sometimes called survival  of the fittest, natural selection is the process by which  those individuals with genetic traits better suited to their environments live long enough to reproduce many offspring, thereby passing the genes for those favorable adaptations to the next generation. Those individuals lacking the favorable traits, or possessing unfavorable traits, are likely to die off before they can reproduce, removing their genetic material from the ongoing  gene pool. Comparing Reproductive Success Rates The term differential reproductive success refers to a statistical analysis comparing successful reproduction rates between groups in a given generation of a species- in other words, how many offspring each group of individuals is able to leave behind. The analysis is used to compare two groups holding different variations of the same trait, and it provides evidence of which group is the fittest. If individuals exhibiting variation A of a trait are demonstrated to reach reproductive age more often and produce more offspring than individuals with variation B of the same trait, the differential reproductive success rate allows you to infer that natural selection is at work and that variation A is advantageous- at least for conditions at the time. Those individuals with variation A will deliver more genetic material for that trait to the next generation, making it more likely to persist and carry on to future generations. Variation B, meanwhile, is likely to gradually vanish.   Differential reproductive success can manifest in a number of ways. In some instances, a trait variation might cause individuals to live longer, thereby having more birth events that deliver more offspring to the next generation. Or, it may cause more offspring to be produced with each birth, even though lifespan remains unchanged. Differential reproductive success can be used to study natural selection in any population of any living species, from the largest mammals to the smallest microorganisms. The evolution of certain antibiotic-resistance bacteria is a classic example of natural selection, in which bacteria with a gene mutation making them resistant to drugs gradually replaced bacteria that had no such resistance. For medical scientists, identifying these strains of drug-resistant bacteria (the fittest) involved documenting the differential reproductive success rates between different strains of the bacteria.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Power of Language Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Power of Language - Essay Example It is not surprising that our native language is often referred to as our "mother tongue" a terms that recalls our earliest memories and influences. The term itself has different meanings. The sociolinguist Tove Skutnabb Kangas (1981) hypothesizes five definitions of "mother tongue" depending on who is defining it. For the sociologist, mother tongue is the language one learns first. For the linguist, it is the language one knows best. For the sociolinguist it is the language one uses the most. For the social psychologist, it is the language one identifies with and through which one is identified. For the lay person, it is "the language one counts in thinks in, dreams in, writes a diary in, and writes poetry in" (Skutnabb- Kangas, 1981: 18). Skutnabb- Kangas' social psychological definition of mother tongue brings out the importance of language as part of one's cultural identity. The mother tongue is the langue through which in the process of socialization one has required the norms and value systems of one's own group. The language passes on the cultural tradition of the group and there by gives the individual an identity which ties her to the in-group and at the same time sets her apart from other possible groups of reference.. Since this socialization process to a large extent occurs with the aid of language, language itself comes to constitute a symbolic representation of the group. Diversity in Language If just a few of the majority languages of the world solely existed, how tedious and uninteresting it would be. Rather, for the moment we have a language garden full of variety and color. The initial conclusion is simply that language diversity in the garden of the world makes for a richer, more interesting world with a depth of experience gained from a breadth of cultures. However, language diversity makes the garden more difficult to tend. In a garden, some flowers and shrubs spread quickly. Some majority languages, particularly English, have expanded considerably during the last century. When the garden is neglected, a few strong species of flower may take over, and small minority flowers may be in danger of extinction. Therefore some delicate flowers need extra care and protection. A free language economy will mean the extinction of many languages' Language planning is essential to avoid such trends. When a gardener wishes to create a beautiful garden, there will be both careful planning and continued care and protection. Sometimes radical action may be taken to preserve and protect. The analogy suggests that language diversity requires planning and care. If language resources are to be maintained and developed, of ensuring that the speaker of all languages value their language and take pride in their language skills. This will occur only if the society as a whole values those languages, recognizes and values language skills, and recognizes and values cultural and linguistic diversity. Value of diversity Linguistic Diversity helps sustain human existence. At times, medical cures are found in plans and flowers native to a particular region; knowledge about these cures comes from native speaking the local language. If the language disappears, the medical knowledge will disappear as well. Languages contain other types of knowledge; they express particular

Friday, October 18, 2019

(educatio)culture geography of childhood Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

(educatio)culture geography of childhood - Essay Example onal researchers have mentioned culture and tradition play a vital role in acquisition of values, knowledge, beliefs, behaviours and expectations of a child’s life. Eminent psychological and learning theories such as social constructivism and cognitive theory underlines the significance of social or family interaction in character formation and learning. By Barbara M. Newman, Philip R. Newman remark; â€Å"Vygotsky considered the nature of reasoning and problem solving as culturally created.† (Newman & Newman 2008, p.60). This photographic essay the researcher investigates the role of culture and tradition in a person’s character formation and learning. The selected photograph is about a boy named Aissa from an Algerian Islamic family. The photographic essay reveals a story or evokes a sequence of emotions in the mind of the reader which discuss cultural beliefs and traditions of a child. The first set of the photographs reveals that the boy Aissa is very frankly mingled with his family members and one can easily find his positive attitudes towards his parents. The boy keeps a healthy relationship with his family members. The given image (figure1and 2) also expresses the boy has developed good and excellent personality because he respects all members of his family and his society. Erich Fromm, Michael Maccoby assert;† Village parents are serious about obedience, and they feel that to be playful for or to show enthusiasm about the child at this age would undermine respect.† (Fromm & Maccoby 1996, p.189). The boy in this photograph is a member of a conservative Islamic Algerian family and this picture shows the cultural and religious background of the family. The given photographs help the viewer to reach the idea that the boy has followed and sustained a structured behaviour and it also reveals the characteristics of his culture and tradition which follow the habit of respecting others. Don Tinkler argues that â€Å"Of major importance in the development of

Willa Seidon at Tides Center Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Willa Seidon at Tides Center - Essay Example while the recession is highlighted by increased competition, low market share and financial constraints and instability. Even in these circumstances the organization needs to survive through its strategies. Often different strategies are adopted for survival which requires organizational restructuring and change management. A visionary leader, with clarity in ideas about how to proceed and effective change implementation is required at this stage. Leadership: Leadership is a subjective concept. There is no particular definition of leadership; there are as many definitions of leadership as the number of people who tried researching on the vast subject. Leadership is a social process embedded in the minds of leaders of followers. Great leaders help us see the current situation and see a brighter future through the dark times. They see new opportunities and combine every one to work for a common goal, during which they make critical decisions to set a direction to proceed. Some research ers view leadership as power relation by which they can affect and introduce change in people. Some view it as transformational process by which the followers are able to achieve more than what is expected from them. While some scholars view it as skills perspective where they argue certain skills and knowledge are required to be effective leaders. (Northouse, Peter.G. 2009 ; Gallos, Joan.V. 2008; Koestenbaum, Peter. 2002) The arguments about leaders are born or made is a never ending debate. Many researchers say it could be both. A natural ability to lead is important and found in every leader. On the other hand various workshops and courses are conducted on effective leadership programs. Therefore leaders possess natural ability and skill to lead which can be further polished and converted into more effective leadership. (Lussier, Robert. N, Achua, Christopher. F. 2009; Avolio, Bruce J. 2005) Effective leaders motivate and inspire followers; they have the skills to take out the be st from people. Leadership is exercised on group of people and teams, usually with the aim to make them achieve one common goal rather individual goals. Successful leaders need to understand tasks, people and processes in the organization. They must attend the current situation work through them to identify future possibilities, provide a vision and strategies to fulfill that vision and related missions, create a learning organization where people’s development and growth is paramount of importance and direct their minds in strategizing and initiate collaboration among different sections, departments and processes in the organization. The function of management and the function of leadership are often confused together. Management provides order and consistency to the organization and works for order and stability while leadership initiates change and improvement and seeks adaptive and constructive changes. Leadership is all about establishing direction- setting vision, missi on, strategies and goals, aligning people- bring clarity in goals, seek commitment and built team work and last but not the least motivating and inspiring- by empowering and satisfying development needs. (Northouse, Peter.G. 2009 ; Gallos, Joan.V. 2008) Like many great leaders, Willa Seldon is one of the inspiring leaders who helped Tides Centre and guided them through the difficult times. With her vision and ability to manage effective change she led Tides Centre (TC). She was appointed as a Chief Executive Director in September 2003, when Tides applied for the ‘seed grant’ of $ 1 million was offered by Kellog Foundation. During that time TC and the entire fiscal sponsorship sector was struggling for financial

Homelessness Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 6

Homelessness - Essay Example Governments as well as organizations have tried in combating the issue of homelessness but the fight is yet to be won. The state of homelessness is not pleasant. According to worldwide survey conducted in 2005, it was apparent that there were more than one hundred million people without permanent dwellings across the world; it is almost obvious that this figure has grown with time considering the exponentially advancing capitalism economy across the world. The worst hit is countries in Africa and some parts of Asia, the situation in the United States and Europe is better. According to a survey by the National Alliance to End Homelessness, there was a minimal reduction in the state of homelessness in America between 2009 and 2011; this reduction was by a margin of one percent (Coalition of the Homeless of Central Florida 1). The reduction was attributed to several advancements in the side of the Federal government as well as the state governments. A major breakthrough has been courtesy of an innovative program launched in 2010 by the federal government dubbed Prevention and Rapid Re-Housing Program ( Coalition of the Homeless of Central Florida 1). Various causes are accompanied by homelessness all across the world. It appears that the driving forces are the same, poverty. United States is one of the countries that enjoy low rates of homelessness courtesy of the well-established economy. Countries that are struggling in keeping up with economic instabilities are worst hit, some parts of Africa have reported up to millions of people living in muddy houses and makeshift houses if not tents. However, there are policies in development by individual countries to counter the menace. Enactment of workable policies and growing the economy seems to the lasting solution, the realization of these will be a contribution of all the relevant stakeholders. In order to prevent homelessness all individuals must take an active

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Glimpse of Scriptures of Religions of Indian Origin Essay

Glimpse of Scriptures of Religions of Indian Origin - Essay Example This paper illustrates philosophy and beliefs of Sikhism. No other God but one. Same God is for every person and every religion. The soul passes through the phases of birth and death before reaching to human form. The aim of life is to live an exemplary life so that our soul may merge with God. Every follower of Sikh religion should always remember God and practice living a moral and honest life and should maintain a balance between the obligations of temporal and spiritual. The right path to attain salvation and merging with God does not require rejection of the world or abstaining yourselves from any sexual relations, but by leading a life as a householder, living an honest life and stay away from sins and worldly temptations. Both these most influential beliefs have shaped Asian history. Both of these religions have dominated the majority of Asian regions, especially India and China. They have been around thousands of years. Both Buddhism and Daoism are different in many things, y et share the same original confidence in renascence. Both have its own approach to such belief in the same way both emphasize a different way of life. Buddhism was founded by Siddharta Gautama, he belongs to a royal family and was born as a prince in 624 BC in a place called Lumbini. He was known as Buddha meaning ‘enlightened one’. From the beginning, Buddhism has been embraced to be a philosophy and a religion at the same time. The core values of Buddhism are encapsulated in three things. Daoism (Taoism) was first introduced in China. The main focus of Daoism is on subjects that move around religious and philosophical backgrounds, for example, peace, strength, openness, naturalness, hollowness, the connection between universe and humanity, and inaction or wu wei. Daoism came from the word â€Å"Tao† which means the ‘way’, the power that exists in all life in the world. Therefore the aim of the Daoist’s is to straighten up him with that way.   According to Daoism the soul never dies, it is everlasting and changes to another life till completion of Taoist goals.   

White-collar crimes Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

White-collar crimes - Research Paper Example The entities that have been given the mandate to investigate the occurrence of white-collar crimes include the Securities and Exchange Commissions and the FBI. The most common white-collar crimes include embezzlement, fraud, money laundering, and corporate fraud. It is of increased importance to comprehend the different forms of white-collar crimes so as to understand how they fit in this crime category. Embezzlement is described as misuse of funds while fraud is the misrepresentation of financial investment information. Additionally, money laundering is one of the most serious crimes and is described as giving a legitimate source to funds that have been obtained through means such as embezzlement implying that these crimes can at times be connected. Lastly, corporate fraud can be said to be illegal and dishonest crimes that may be committed by an executive or a company employee mostly dealing with money. This therefore explains how white-collar crimes are not related to violence and that the main individuals committing them are those holding respectable positions and those who have high social status (Gottschalk, 2010). The term white-col lar crime was coined to relate this crime to the individuals who commit it. It is committed by individuals holding the white-collar employment positions. Some of the white-collar crimes are not easy to prosecute due to the difficulties presented by the individuals who committed them with respect to using sophisticated means to hide the traces of their crimes. These crimes cause countries to lose huge sums of money, which is mostly discovered if some of the disbursed funds cannot be accounted for. It can also be suspicious when the sum of money allocated for a specific project is unreasonably high as compared to the size of the project financially. Such suspicions usually lead to white-collar crime investigation and prosecution mostly of the individuals holding the positions

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Glimpse of Scriptures of Religions of Indian Origin Essay

Glimpse of Scriptures of Religions of Indian Origin - Essay Example This paper illustrates philosophy and beliefs of Sikhism. No other God but one. Same God is for every person and every religion. The soul passes through the phases of birth and death before reaching to human form. The aim of life is to live an exemplary life so that our soul may merge with God. Every follower of Sikh religion should always remember God and practice living a moral and honest life and should maintain a balance between the obligations of temporal and spiritual. The right path to attain salvation and merging with God does not require rejection of the world or abstaining yourselves from any sexual relations, but by leading a life as a householder, living an honest life and stay away from sins and worldly temptations. Both these most influential beliefs have shaped Asian history. Both of these religions have dominated the majority of Asian regions, especially India and China. They have been around thousands of years. Both Buddhism and Daoism are different in many things, y et share the same original confidence in renascence. Both have its own approach to such belief in the same way both emphasize a different way of life. Buddhism was founded by Siddharta Gautama, he belongs to a royal family and was born as a prince in 624 BC in a place called Lumbini. He was known as Buddha meaning ‘enlightened one’. From the beginning, Buddhism has been embraced to be a philosophy and a religion at the same time. The core values of Buddhism are encapsulated in three things. Daoism (Taoism) was first introduced in China. The main focus of Daoism is on subjects that move around religious and philosophical backgrounds, for example, peace, strength, openness, naturalness, hollowness, the connection between universe and humanity, and inaction or wu wei. Daoism came from the word â€Å"Tao† which means the ‘way’, the power that exists in all life in the world. Therefore the aim of the Daoist’s is to straighten up him with that way.   According to Daoism the soul never dies, it is everlasting and changes to another life till completion of Taoist goals.   

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCE Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

FUNDAMENTALS OF FINANCE - Essay Example So, going by the NPV rule projects B and C are the ones that SKATE plc should consider investing in. However, since project C is expected to generate much greater present value for the firm, it is the one that should be invested in if the firm is under the obligation to choose only one from the given set of three alternatives. The IRR rule says invest in a project only if the IRR is greater than the required rate of return. So in the given situation we have to calculate the IRRs for the three projects and compare those to the given required rate of return, 15%. So we find that the IRR to be lesser than the required rate of return in case of project A and greater for project B and C implying that only these latter two should be considered for investment. And the fact that the IRR is so high in case of project C implies that it is the project that should be chosen if only one has to be chosen. So we find similar results and suggestions for both the NPV and the IRR criteria. The discounted payback rule is another criterion for investment projects. Essentially this measure discounts the future cash flows obtainable from a certain project to calculate the time the project takes to payback the initial investment and hence the name. If for instance, X is the amount that needs to be initially invested, this rule solves for that value of T which satisfies the equation Where Ct represents the cash flow at time t and r is the discount rate representing the time value of money. If the value of T is lower than some predetermined time period, the project should be accepted according to this rule. So, with the cut off period being one year, project B should be accepted according to the discounted payback rule as the project generates cash flows the discounted values of which are greater than the initial investment in the first period itself. Similarly, for project C, we get C1/ (1.15) = 78.2609 > 50 = C0 implying that this project also pays back he invested

Monday, October 14, 2019

Developing Electoral System in Uganda Villages

Developing Electoral System in Uganda Villages Electoral system for two villages in Uganda Introduction The electoral system of a new democracy emerges in two stages. In a comparatively short time the electoral rules are concocted and espoused. Then, over several elections, voter an politician learn how to apply these procedures within the sociopolitical setting. The selection of early electoral rules is a multifaceted practice where the actor’s self-interest elucidates everything and henceforth nothing, surpassed as it is by arbitrary events, compromises and misperceptions which bring inadvertent consequences. Preferably, the electoral rules should be founded on measureable theory verified by universal experience and attuned to local conditions, however, knowledge on the operation of electoral rules under numerous situations is still extremely limited, even though it is expanding. Thus the major advice for the villages is to maintain simple electoral rules in order to facilitate the global use of empirical and analytical knowledge to obtain foreseeable outcomes and to make informed incremental changes whenever required. Upon selection, the same procedures should be maintained for some time in order to give time for the development of an electoral system. In order to sustain some flexibility, the electoral rules should be clearly stipulated in the constitution taking note of the smallest details as much as possible. This paper recommends an electoral system which the two villages of Uganda might adopt in electing its first councilors. Analysis The electoral system cannot be designed by individuals, since the designing of a party system is close to chimerical process. According to the systems theory, the system infers partitioning of the world into internal and external. The system has the power to restore some internal equipoise when bothered by external aspects. The electoral system emerges in two stages. But how are electoral procedures selected in new democracies like the case of the two villages? Frequently they are not designed in a sequential manner, as fabricated by the design. All too often they are a collaged of incongruous concessions. It may seem hard-boiled pragmatism to assert that self-interest of the novel decision-makers defines the choice. The distress is that the assertion is as non-falsifiable as â€Å"all things take place as God desires† Such declarations retroactively elucidate every conceivable effect and thus forecast nothing specific. The individuals’ perception of self-interest is difficult to stipulate even for himself or herself much less for other people. Individuals make a decisions on what is in their interest concerning the conflicting and varied and regularly fleeting grounds. The self-interest of the politicians, who in the case would be the aspirant councilors, cannot be demarcated only as winning the forthcoming election. The objective might clash with long term interest, comprising maintenance of steadiness. It can clash with philosophical preferences, counting the advice of external advisors which belong the same ideological strain. The force of familiar examples and habit in a foreign country also enter. Furthermore, the mechanism used to attain the presumed self-interest of an individual, can be counterproductive and misinformed. Taking in the assumptions that, for old systems in socialist dominated areas, winning the forthcoming election was area, winning the next election was prevailing all other contemplations. Such systems frequently wished keeping the Socialist electoral procedures, which errand the largest village, not only by power of habit but also since they expect to become the largest electoral college. This turned to be a calamitous misjudgment in various countries. The predominant powers may stick to the procedures inherited from previous political rule either by inexperience of substitutions or by attempting to poise reasonably the advantages of the prevailing procedures against the risks and costs innovation. Thus almost all ex-British colonies implemented SMP without comprehending that congress size matters. As given by the SMP, the operative number of parties have a tendency to be significantly larger in the large legislature of UK than in the legislative assembly of a small nations. As an alternative to the vigorous two-party system, the legislatures in small societies frequently end up with an excessively strong largest party and an entirely decimated opposition party. This was not the intention of the decision makers of the electoral system, and in retrospect it difficultly served the interests of these decision makers. The procedures chosen at the commencement of democratization create a difference, however sometimes in unforeseen direc tions, since there are worried political philosophy and party constellation. Negotiations between numerous proposals all too frequently result to complex rules, nonetheless complexity improves impulsiveness and the probability for receiving the worst of both cases. The major decision distresses the poise between representation and governability of minority opinions. Governability may be indorsed by having two main parties and single party council, which in turn frequently emerge from the SMP decree. Proportional representation (PR) of the views of the minority, is best attained by utilizing a single electoral district in the villages. If the political culture of the villages spontaneously advance only two electoral parties, despite the use of PR electoral rules. Distant from the balance of governability-representation, several other considerations come in, such as the cohesion amongst parties and an individual. In the new villages, two facets emerge sturdier between them since one has a larger capacity. One is legality of electoral procedures, or rather discernment of it. If for any reason either, wrong or right, these procedures are considered to be illegitimate, then democracy is in trouble. Secondly, the cost of elections both in labor and money is another factor. The villages are strapped for skilled administrators and funds so that excessive allocation of these resources to the process of election may result in economic or social gaps elsewhere. In a dispassionate impression of the numerous electoral systems and their constituents all the way across the world, both the claimed shortcomings and advantages of the countless approaches. They emphasize on the issue of the cost of elections both in terms of perception of legitimacy and money of legitimacy. Simple procedures may be projected to maintain the costs down, however what looks modest on the surface may comprise costs elsewhere. For example, SMP might appear like the meekest of all allocation procedures, but the preliminary illustration of electoral boundaries is expensive, and so is the registration of voters, since, according to SMP the result relies much on the place the voter cast his or her vote. Two-round rules twice over the fee of polling stations, vote counting and ballot papers. There is also voter disappointment and fatigue, if a swarming first round leaves advances a choice amongst two poorly buttressed finalists. On the other hand, multi-seat wards may be costly to conduct voter education and edification. Voter disappointment may harm stability, if excess ballots are spoiled as a result of ballot intricacy or if the consequences look enigmatic because of a byzantine allocation formula. Qualms about the legality of election results may focus solely on the electoral procedures and the dogmatic operators explicitly held liable for the supposedly partial or inappropriate rules. However, such qualms can also extend to the complete â€Å"political course† or even democracy, imperiling cessation of democratization. Reasonably, there is an impulse to appraise the procedures after the initial elections, however it might be too early. Party constellation and political culture are still in flux. The steady characteristics of the results of electoral procedures cannot yet be measured, because voters and politicians are still getting acquainted how to these procedures might be used to their advantage. There is enticement to fine-tune the electoral procedure instead of waiting or for the learning process to occur. However if the procedures are continuously changed such learning may ever take place. A major measure to determine if the electoral procedures count is whether derisory procedure have obviously led to failure of democracy, or a severe crisis. Infrequently have electoral procedures been the sole motive in the past, however they have underwritten the crisis. Ideally, electoral procedures should be premeditated with progressive self-interest, utilizing all the available knowledge which can be offered by political science. Progressive self-interest infers taking a long-range opinion. For example, a large electoral party may not expect to remain great at all times, therefore it would be misguided to endorse procedures which that a large seat advantage to the largest village, merely on the foundation of the present popularity of the individual, utilizing the rich knowledge of political science though in a stickier proposition. Conclusion In conclusion, a stable electoral systems is comprised of not only electoral rules however, thy also involve the mechanisms with which these rules are applied in the given villages. This culture includes informed self-interest, meaning some concern for stability and tradition, and avoidance of gross miscalculations resulting from limited understanding of the effect of given electoral rules. This experience emerges with time. A steady electoral system contains of electoral procedures which have endured some tests of the time. These times would be summarized, if the resident learning experience can be supplemented by the general academic knowledge concerning the things of electoral procedures and their collaboration with other aspects. To some degree each electoral scheme is sui generis, since similar electoral procedures are entrenched in dissimilar sociopolitical and historical contexts. If this triumphed totally, then no guidance to newly democratizing villages would be conceivable separately from ill-defined, which differs from one consultant to the next. However, this is not the case, some hard, transferable knowledge previously exists, to an incomplete degree. Therefore the two villages should adopt a simple electoral system which allows them to be modest about their ability to predict the effect of electoral rules. Even for stable systems, one finds substantial disagreement of opinion and variability of data. Extension to newly democratizing villages such as the two should be more cautious, in the perspective of unstable and different political cultures. Recommending multifaceted electoral systems, in precise, infers pretentiousness of knowing more than the people do. Containing electoral procedures in constitutions might make it worse. This inclusion should be withheld until theory is put on a much steadier foundation than is the present case with the villages.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Essay --

Nuclear power is a relatively new method of supplying the ever growing population with the electricity that is required. Although the majority of people are unsure of how generation occurs, nuclear power provides roughly 17% of the world’s power. (Rich, Alex K...) This makes nuclear power a deciding factor in how the race progresses in technology and energy fabrication as it is able to produce mass amounts of electricity in short periods of time. The limit potential for nuclear power is unclear in not only energy but also weaponry and some medical uses. The fact that uranium and the radioactivity that comes with it are used in facilities and other inventions often lead people to distrust the inventions which, while not entirely un-called for, hinders progress and leads to fables and tales around nuclear energy, its creation, and the nuclear power plants that are springing up around the world. This causes nuclear facilities to slow in their development which only makes things w orse because as things progress the facilities will only get increasingly safe as long as they are handled professionally. (Rich, Alex K†¦) Some of the slanderous fables around nuclear power include things like claiming that nuclear facilities cannot operate during droughts and water shortages. (Kharecha, Pushker†¦) While nuclear power is accompanied by several risks, it can also be the solution for various global strains and difficulties. Nuclear power is generated through a process known as nuclear fission which occurs when the uranium molecules are placed in the water. This process causes the water to heat up to boiling point and generates steam, from there it operates like most other power plants by using the steam to turn turbines and create energy. Stea... ...ut. It has been shown that raising passive temperatures in a nuclear facility by only one degree Celsius reduces the production amount by 0.4%. (Linnerud, Kristin) Nuclear power may lead to some extensive breakthroughs in multiple fields for better or for worse in the case of humanity and its survival. It’s a topic that people need to take a bit more seriously as it holds the chance to make or break the future for earth and its inhabitants. Greater risks have greater rewards and as observance of nuclear products and ideas deepen then so do the products yield, perhaps into infinity. While nuclear power is accompanied by several risks, it can also be the solution for various global strains and difficulties. Sufficient energy for the world is a huge goal to tackle and requires the use of any efficient resource we have, especially when the source has so much potential.

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Sylvan Learning Systems Case Study Essay -- Education Tutoring Essays

Sylvan Learning Systems Case Study The Sylvan case study illustrates the challenges of building value and improving business performance through an acquisition and diversification strategy that did not coincide with the capabilities and competencies that originally built the Sylvan brand. Sylvan was founded by W. Berry Fowler in 1979 and during his six year tenure, Berry developed the franchise business model, training and educational programs, and teaching methodology that provided Sylvan with a competitive advantage in the education industry.1 Berry Fowler built his business strategy through an intimate understanding of customers needs and developed Sylvan’s core competencies around providing supplemental education designed to fill the educational gaps experienced by students. 1 Upon Berry’s departure, Sylvan’s new CEO, Douglas Becker, embarked on a corporate-level strategy of related diversification. However, this strategy did not successfully translate into financial economies between business es nor did it obtain significant market power through these additional levels of educational diversification.2 To that end, this case study will look more closely at Sylvan’s process of diversification and acquisition strategy, management’s leadership as Sylvan transitioned from their founder and the new course the organization charted to address additional challenges for the new millennium. W. Berry Fowler founded Sylvan Learning Center with an investment of $14,500 in 1979.1 As a former teacher and through his own experience of receiving tutoring help during college, Fowler hoped to prevent students falling short academically by filling the educational/learning gaps left by students’ primary educational provider.1 During his six year tenure, Fowler built Sylvan’s competitive advantage through its low cost franchise model, educational programs and teaching methodology. Of particular importance to the success of Sylvan Learning Centers (and sustained competitive advantage) was the ability to capitalize on the expertise and resources of local franchise owners (Fowler lacked the capital to expand on his own) and gain maximum benefit from knowledge they diffused throughout the organization.2 Additionally, through a focused strategy of augmenting K-12 educational services offered by the public school system, Sylvan was able to capitalize and to integrate their i... ...e activities and focus that were critical to the Sylvan’s earlier success (i.e. Sylvan Ventures). That being said, Sylvan’s recent split into two companies to allow better focus and better investment decisions is clearly a gigantic step in the right direction. The goal of this restructuring through down scoping was to reduce Sylvan’s level of diversification, to eliminate unrelated businesses that didn’t serve a strategic purpose, and to help top-level managers refocus on the core business.2 In the case for Laureate, Becker and his top management can solely focus on post-secondary education. For Educate, Inc, Chris Hoehn-Seric and his top-management can solely focus on the K-12 education market. With this focus, Educate, Inc and Laureate should marshal their resources to continue to define and mine opportunities in their respective segments of the fragmented educational market. References: 1.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ashaye, Cotts, Gray, Perry, â€Å"Sylvan Learning Systems†, Sylvan Learning Systems, Inc. 2.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Hoskisson, Hitt, Ireland, â€Å"Competing for Advantage†, Thomson Learning 2004. 3.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Educate, Inc., http://www.educate-inc.com 4. Laureate Education, Inc., http://www.laureate-inc.com

Friday, October 11, 2019

Therefore the management considered

Anthony Nicholas Group was established in 1949 and is currently the leading indigenous jewellery business in Ireland employing 230 people. The Group already implemented an IT strategy in the form of back-office systems and software.However the software was inflexible as it offered no scope for organizational growth in addition to being old, slow and unreliable. Therefore the management considered the option of developing an Internet presence that would simultaneously upgrade the back-office systems and software.The implementation was to be financed by the Enterprise Ireland e-business Acceleration Fund Initiative. Because of the growing online market the IT strategy was considered to be the critical success factor.The end result was envisioned to consist of two components: back office and e-business and web site development. However the implementation process had some problems such as the project team underestimated the true scope of the project so that there were problems related to delays and unanticipated pressures on internal resources.AnalysisIn implementing the IT strategy, the Group followed the strategic alignment process. This process occurs in iterations between four phases: IT strategy, business strategy, organizational issues and information systems issues.The IT strategy of launching the e-business platform was aligned to the business strategy of improving customer service. This alignment between IT strategy and business strategy was maintained with organizational issues in terms of forming the project team which included the Managing Director, Financial Controller and IT Manager.The workload of managing change on the workforce was tremendous as it occurred organization-wide. This problem was addressed through hiring temporary staff. Finally information systems issues were addressed through running the new system and the old system in parallel so that if there were any bugs in the new system, it wouldn’t disrupt the operations in the company .Following the strategic alignment process enabled the Group to conduct the process of managing change in alignment with the strategic focus of the company.Frequently this alignment is lost because the management may not have the necessary IT strategy while the employees are unwilling to cooperate in the implementation leading to user resistance. The management addressed both problems through the strategic alignment process. However there were still delays in completing the installation in time and according to budget because the software specifications had to be changed in accordance with the organizational structure.Therefore there was some degree of customization involved which was facilitated through demonstrations and site visits. They were the basis upon which supplier selection was made. They enabled the Group management to communicate with the supplier regarding the end-user needs so that the end product was fully customized to the organizational structure. This is the criti cal success factor since otherwise the end result would be to introduce a system that does not work thus adding to user resistance.As stated in the case the retail market is characterized by a high level of competitive rivalry and the use of the Internet in sales and marketing is well established.Therefore the Group’s present IT strategy is very much in keeping with creating a position that would enable Anthony Nicholas to meet the overall business strategy of presenting their products and interacting with the customers online. In implementing the IT strategy the company had two aims: establishing a business-to-business e-commerce capability and an Internet business-to-consumer facility.Both the aims were addressed by the e-business strategy. However strategy was not meant to increase turnover, it was more of an add-on to the current service levels.The business-to-business e-commerce strategy was implemented through Solvar which incorporated the manufacturing and wholesale op eration while the business-to-consumer strategy was implemented through the ‘Fields of Dublin’ website. These two modules made the information systems scalable so that the management could add on.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Discuss the Role Central Banks Have Played in Counteracting

Discuss the role central banks (e. g. Fed, Bank of England) have played in counteracting the effects of the financial crisis. Argue how the monetary policy mandate might change in the future to avoid such crises. As stated by Buiter (2008) the Central Bank has three main tasks. These are; ‘(1) the pursuit of macroeconomic stability; (2) maintaining financial stability and (3) ensuring the proper functioning of the ‘plumbing’ of a monetary economy'.The effectiveness of the Central Bank, during the financial crisis, will be discussed as well as how the Central Bank could change its monetary policies in order to avoid such a crisis in the future. The main focus will be on the Bank of England (BoE), the European Central Bank (ECB) and the Federal Reserve System (Fed). Each of the Central Banks have different objectives when it comes to monetary policy. The BoE concentrates on the target inflation set by the Chancellor of the Exchequer, which is 2 percent. The ECB has a similar objective although they can set target inflation themselves and it is usually just under 2 percent.The Fed on the other hand has two main aims; ‘maximum employment, stable prices' (Buiter 2008). When the crisis hit, the Central Banks made some attempts to counteract it. Firstly, they broadened their role as a lender of last resort. They started to include ‘liquidity support to non-deposit-taking institutions' (Blanchard, 2010). This allowed them to intervene either directly or indirectly with more companies. This occurred at the start of the crisis where overnight interest rates rose sharply in Europe leading to the ECB responding with a liquidity injection of ‘â‚ ¬94. 8 billion worth of overnight repos' (Cecchetti, 2008).The Central Banks went on to drop interest rates. The aim of this was to allow banks to receive short-term funding at lower interest rates as well as reducing the demand for inter-bank loans (Cecchetti 2008). The hope was that lower in terest rates would also encourage spending in the economy. However, This did not solve the problem. This is why the Fed decided to adopt a new policy where they introduced the Term Auction Facility (TAF). In America the Government debt was continuing to decline and there was a worry that the Federal Reserve would have to change their balance sheet management.The TAF allowed banks to bid for reserves at interest rates ‘below the primary lending rate available at the time' (Cecchetti 2008). The aim of this was to alleviate pressures in the long-term funding markets. This policy was also adopted by the ECB and BoE. A major problem which affected Central Banks in the North Atlantic region was that they made mistakes because they had not anticipated a financial crisis (Buiter 2008). The Fed cut its interest rates excessively due to political pressures and financial sector concerns.This over-reaction of the Fed was partly due to the fact that they are the least independent of the th ree central banks and, as a result, felt political and financial sector pressures leading to the over-reaction. If the Fed were to become more independent then such an over-reaction might not occur. One option for Central Banks is to take into account the exchange rate. During the financial crisis the exchange rate was extremely volatile, due to large shifts in cash flows, which lead to ‘large disruptions in activity' (Blanchard, 2010).These large fluctuations cause balance sheets of companies to become unpredictable and can damage the trade sector leading to the financial sector becoming more unstable. These fluctuations might be minimized if the Central Banks took exchange rates into consideration as well as the inflation rate when determining monetary policies. Exchange rates can, however, not become too stable as this can create ‘greater incentives for contract dollarization' (Blanchard, 2010). The financial crisis has shown that the zero bound nominal interest rates can cause huge problems.Hence, it can be argued that target inflation rate could be increased. If the inflation rate were to be increased to 4 percent for example, then this would allow them to lower nominal interest rates to zero and then the real interest rate could be lowered to as low as negative 4 percent . Conventional monetary policy could then ease monetary policy by more than it could with a lower inflation target (Mishkin 2011). However, raising the inflation rate could cause problems. It has been found that the economy remains stable if inflation rates are below 3 percent.Once the inflation rate is above this level people start to believe that the price level is not a credible goal for the Central Bank any more. This has occurred before in the United States leading the the great inflation in the 1970s (Mashkin 2011). Lastly Central Banks could use a price level target instead of the inflation target they use at the moment. Price level targeting has a major benefit which is that it is an automatic stabilizer. If demand where to drop this would cause a lower price level which would ead to the monetary policy raising the price level back to its target. This would cause a rise in inflation in the short run which would lower interest rates which would stimulate aggregate demand. There are, however, some problems when using price level targeting to determine monetary policy. Price level targeting can cause larger fluctuations in output as well as being harder to communicate to the public. The price level target would constantly be changing which is harder to explain the inflation target which remains constant.In conclusion it I have discussed how the Central Banks have tried to counteract the financial crisis. I have found that as well as coming up with innovative ideas such as the TAF to try to counteract the crisis, they have also made mistakes. There have also been some ideas as to how to change monetary policy, Such as price level targeting and raisi ng the inflation rate, in order to prevent such a crisis in the future. References: Blanchard, O. , Dell’Aricca, G. , Mauro, P. (2010), â€Å"Rethinking Macroeconomic Policy†, IMF Staff Position Note, http://www. mf. org/external/pubs/ft/spn/2010/spn1003. pdf Cecchetti, S. (2009), â€Å"Monetary Policy and the Financial Crisis of 2007-2008†, mimeo, http://fmwww. bc. edu/ec-j/Sems2008/Cecchetti. pdf Buiter, W. (2008), â€Å"Central banks and financial crises†, discussion paper series, http://eprints. lse. ac. uk/24438/1/dp619. pdf Mishkin, F. (2011), â€Å"Monetary Policy Strategy: Lessons from the Financial Crisis†, NBER Working Papers, https://mms. st-andrews. ac. uk/mms/module/2011_2/S2/EC2008/Content/Mishkin%20%282011%29%3A%20Monetary%20Policy%20Strategy/Mishkin2011. pdf