Monday, September 30, 2019
Should college athletes be paid? Many have different opinions on this subject. Some feel that a fully paid scholarship is enough for these talented individuals. But for the athletes itÃ¢â¬ s not enough. Allen Sack, a former football player said: Ã¢â¬ No matter their economic circumstances, college scholarship athletes, almost universally agree that there needs to be a way for money to find its way into their hands ligitimatley.Ã¢â¬ But what most the public doesnÃ¢â¬ t know is that intercollegiate athletics is a primary source of income for colleges and universities in the United States, and the athletes arenÃ¢â¬ t seeing a penny of it. The N.C.A.A. is whatÃ¢â¬ s keeping the athletes from seeing some of the money they deserve by calling it Ã¢â¬Å"Amateurism.Ã¢â¬ Rule 2.9 says: Ã¢â¬ The principal of Amateurism Student athletes shall be amateurs in an intercollegiate sport, and their participation should be motivated primarily by education and the physical, mental and social benefits to be derives. Student participation in intercollegiate athletics is an avocation, and student athletes should be protected from exploitation by professional and commercial enterprises.Ã¢â¬ These rules show you how the N.C.A.A. controls the actions of the student athletes, only to allow them to be manipulated by their universities and take away their freedom to earn money on their own. College athletes who come from low-income families have little or no money, leading them to accept money and gifts illegally. Presidents of division I schools are allowing boosters to offer big money to talented athletes for competing on the fields of play, and try to attract wealthy TV networks to commercialize the sports and make Billions off the consumers. College athletes are young and naive and maybe thatÃ¢â¬ s why they accept money and gifts. Maybe they feel they deserve it and lack the fear of any consequences or maybe they truly need the money since they canÃ¢â¬ t make it elsewhere. Athletes know they have a scholarship, but they also know that a scholarship doesnÃ¢â¬ t give you any money for normal everyday spending. For whatever reason student athletes accept money, whether good or bad, they still take it and they always will as long as itÃ¢â¬ s offered. The star athlete is basically hired to bring success to a certain sports program, regardless of his or her educational goals or intellectual background. Technically it is a phrase describing an individual student who engages in a sport for the academic institution they represent. But the problem that haunts the N.C.A.A. is the realization that the student athlete is truly two different words, describing two different groups of people and one day they will have to admit that they are separate. The bottom line is winning, and winning requires talented athletes, but some athletes realize their value and demand some compensation for their efforts. With all their long hours of hard work and endless practice, they put everything on the line. They risk life and limb for the university they represent and for what? Why undergo the stress and strain of a season, year after year, to only be tossed aside after their eligibility or talent is used up? Obviously for some, itÃ¢â¬ s that small possibility one day turning professional, but for others itÃ¢â¬ s the question of why canÃ¢â¬ t I get paid for my work now? Universities realize that they take in millions of dollars in revenue, and in return all the athlete gets is a scholarship. It all adds up from grants-in-aid to student athletes which generates about 5 million dollars a year. Add that to the millions spent on travel, housing, equipment, health care and other costs, pretty soon were talking about real money. According to the Bureau of Census is that the free education a scholarship athlete has, typically generates an extra $500,000 or more in that persons future. An education is priceless, and the student athletes at American colleges and universities reap the benefits of the finest higher education system in the world. So the knowledge that a student athlete gains in the classroom is something that will never depreciate. What paying players would do is free them from a system in which they do most of the work and assume all of the risk, yet are prevented from sharing in the results of their labor. This in effect, would terminate any forms off corruption and exploitation of intercollegiate athletics. It would also benefit the universities, while still profiting from their athletic programs they would also be scandal free and have the pressures of winning taken off their shoulders. The majority of the pressure would be carried by the already high paid coaches and soon to be high paid athletes. The N.C.A.A. could benefit by engaging in more high profit venues and would be relived of enormous amounts of pressure due to an employee situation within the system. Overall, a system of salary paid athletes put into intercollegiate athletics would change the views of many. Whether it would benefit society depends on such a proposal. I see no reason why such a proposal could not be created.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â Edmund Burke Throughout the existence of slavery in America, white abolitionists have played a crucial role in the fight for the freedom of blacks. They all risked everything, and fueled by passion stepped outside of the societal norm to fight for those unable to fight. However, few white abolitionists caused as much controversy during their time as John Brown. Brown was an abolitionist who not only spoke out on his beliefs, but backed up them up with action.He was so contentious that he was able to be considered a hero and a terrorist at the same time. Although BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s actions were considered debatable, it can be agreed upon today that they were necessary. John Brown was born in 1800 into a deeply religious family with a father who was vigorously opposed to slavery. He went through many jobs including being a farmer, wool merchant, tanner, and land speculator, but was never fina ncially successful. He also traveled about the country living in places such as Ohio, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, and New York all while managing to father a total of twenty children.However, his lack of money and his family life didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop him for fighting for what he believed in; the abolition of slavery. Though Brown was most famously known for his raid on Harpers Ferry, his involvement in anti-slavery had begun long before. And although he was known for being violent, not all of his efforts and actions resulted in bloodshed. He began his fight for slavery quite peacefully by giving some of his own land to fugitive slaves. He then adopted and raised a black baby with his wife as his own child.Brown had also participated in the Underground Railroad, helping the hiding and movement of black slaves throughout the country. In 1847 Brown had met the famous black abolitionist Frederick Douglas who described brown as Ã¢â¬Å"though a white gentleman, [Brown] is in sympathy a bla ck man, and as deeply interested in our case as though his own soul had been pierced with the iron of slaveryÃ¢â¬ (Africans in America). By 1849 Brown had moved into the black community of North Elba, New York, where the blacks referred to him as Ã¢â¬Å"a kind father to themÃ¢â¬ (Africans in America).Looking at BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s proceedings at this point, itÃ¢â¬â¢s hard to imagine how someone who fought for something so good could be considered by many to be so bad. However, as time went on and the fight for freedom in America grew more widespread, BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s controversial methods and violence began to develop. BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s move in 1855 to the Kansas territory with his five sons was when he started to gain his major significance as a figure in the antislavery fight. During this time there was a huge debate going on if Kansas was going to be a free of slave state due to its new entrance as a territory.Brown saw this as a massive opportunity, and arrived heavily armed, expl oding with passion, and ready to fight. Brown was involved in numerous scuffles and hostilities, but one act led by him plunged Bleeding Kansas into more violence. Incensed by the sacking of Lawrence in May 1856 by pro-slavery supporters and the failure of the free-state men to retaliate, Brown led a midnight raid on a group of slavery sympathizers at Pottawatomie Creek. The raiders killed five men, which sparked the Battle of Black Jack and the border war that raged across northeast Kansas in the summer of 1856.He had also led an attack the same year on a proslavery town and brutally killed five of its settlers. Now Brown was commonly known as an outlaw, due to his increasingly violent methods of protest. However, his next and final act, the raid of Harpers Ferry, would be the most notorious moment in BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Brown had spent the summer of 1858 looking to raise money to fund his war against slavery. He wanted to create an Ã¢â¬Å"armyÃ¢â¬ that he would lead on a grand Ã¢â¬Å"battleÃ¢â¬ (Reynolds). This army consisted of he and 21 other men, 5 blacks and 16 whites, and the battle was a raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry.On October 16, 1856 Brown and his men, heavily armed with rifles, attacked Harpers Ferry in West Virginia (at that time it was just Virginia). His plan was to seize the 100,000 muskets and rifles that were located in the armory and use them to arm the local slaves. From there, they would head south, gathering more and more slaves from plantations, and fighting in a manner of Ã¢â¬Å"self defenseÃ¢â¬ (Reynolds). He had even asked Harriet Tubman to join him in the raid; however she was ill and unable to join him.Her participation would have been interesting, and perhaps tragic, as she was the escaped slave that founded the Underground Railway. JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s plan was that the slaves would revolt and battle against their masters. However, this plan would not succeed. The Raid at Harpers Ferry would be a beginning to the Civil War and an end for John Brown. The raid initially went well, they were able to capture the armory due it being guarded by a single watchmen. They then rounded up hostages from some local farms, one being the great grad nephew of George Washington, and spread the news to the local slaves.Unfortunately, Brown and his men soon found themselves surrounded by the U. S Marines led by Colonel Robert E. Lee and were commanded to surrender. Brown initially refused, stating Ã¢â¬Å"No, I prefer to die hereÃ¢â¬ (New World Encyclopedia). Soon the power of the Marines was too much, Brown had become wounded, and he and the survivors of the raid became detained. Brown was taken to Charleston, Virginia where he was given a trial. Before hearing his sentence Brown was permitted to make an address to the court, where he tried to tell the people to look at slavery in a different way.He spoke of the terrible treatment of slaves, how they were essentially unpaid laborers, how families were torn apart and sold, the terrible housing conditions, and how they were beaten and raped. He told the nation Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦I believe to have interfered as I have done,Ã¢â¬ ¦ in behalf of his despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now, if it be deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of millions in the slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit: so let it be doneÃ¢â¬ (Trial of John Brown).John Brown was found guilty and convicted of treason and on December 2, 1859 he was hanged. On his way to be hung at the gallows, Brown had slipped a note to a fellow prisoner that read Ã¢â¬Å"I, John Brown am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land: will never be purged away: but with Blood. I had as I know think: vainly flattered myself that without very much bloodshed; it might be doneÃ¢â¬ (Brogan pg. 309). Not only was this a last word for Brown, but it eerily seemed to also be a prophetic forewarning of the soon-to-come Civil War.After his trial and death, the news had circulated all over of BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s life and death. The controversy ignited immediately, as if the country was covered in gasoline and BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s death was the match dropped upon it. He had even been coined the name Ã¢â¬Å"the Ã¢â¬ËsparkÃ¢â¬â¢ that caused the Civil WarÃ¢â¬ (Frye). According to some, he was an abolitionist martyr, and had inspired many to keep fighting for freedom. But to others, he was a madman, murderer, and terrorist whose death brought about relief. BrownÃ¢â¬â¢s death had Ã¢â¬Å"hurled the country into conundrumÃ¢â¬ (Frye). So was he the liberator of Kansas or simply a crazed maniac?What made it such a tough topic was that even for those who supported antislavery, what he was fighting for seemed right but the way he went about it was questionable. The day after he was executed, Abraham Lincoln had said Ã¢â¬Å" old John Brown has been executed for treason against the state, we cannot object, even though he agreed with us in thinking slavery was wrong. That cannot excuse violence, bloodshed, and treason. It could avail him nothing that he might think right nowÃ¢â¬ (Striner pg. 101). However he did have many influential people that considered him to be a hero.Upon the news of his death, William Lloyd Garrison had said Ã¢â¬Å"was John Brown justified in his attempt? Yes, if Washington was in his. Ã¢â¬ Louisa May Alcott had called Brown Ã¢â¬Å"St. John the JustÃ¢â¬ and worshiped him (Frye). When Harriet Tubman heard the news of his death, she Ã¢â¬Å"mourned the death of her friends in the raid, and continued to hold John Brown as her heroÃ¢â¬ (Lewis). Henry David Thoreau had stated Ã¢â¬Å"No man in America has ever stood up so persistently and effectively for the dignity of human natureÃ¢â¬ ¦Is it not possible that an individual may be right and a government wrongÃ¢â¬ ¦Are laws t o be enforced simply because they were madeÃ¢â¬ (Frye).The controversy that Brown had caused didnÃ¢â¬â¢t just exist during his time. Only fifty years ago, in 1959 (the midst of the civil rights movement) the Civil War Centennial Commission, established by Congress in September 1957 wanted to hold a celebratory remembrance of the Harpers Ferry Raid at the site in West Virginia. However research found that Ã¢â¬Å"The people of the South would be unanimous in opposition to any celebration of the John Brown raid, and most conservative people in the North would be strongly opposed to itÃ¢â¬ (Frye).It turned out that7/8ths of people at that time in the U. S were seriously concerned about the celebration. The one-eighth who werenÃ¢â¬â¢t? The African-American population. What made him so controversial is that when you have right and wrong clearly laid out, things arenÃ¢â¬â¢t that difficult to see. However, Brown didnÃ¢â¬â¢t just have people that were on his side, or not on his side. His violent way of fighting for the freedom of slaves caused people that generally were on his side, to find him too much of a hot topic to support, in a sense causing a division within the divisions.However, what wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t so clear then that is today is that those violent antics that got him into such trouble may in fact have been necessary as a desperate and final action that would in fact cause a physical reaction. John Brown knew that he had to pay the ultimate price in order to pursue his beliefs. That is what made him the abolitionist whose words and deeds provided the backbone and impetus for the Civil War and an end to slavery. His actions may have been extreme, but as seen repeated throughout history, the most influential figures and true fighters are the ones that didnÃ¢â¬â¢t just sit around and do nothing.Who John Brown was, what he stood for, and what made him such an important figure in American history can be seen in a quote by Edmund Burke, one of the few Englishmen who supported the American Revolution: Ã¢â¬Å"All that is necessary for the triumph of evil is that good men do nothing. Ã¢â¬
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Bias, fallacies, and specific rhetorical devices in the speech - Essay Example They easily rely on what the speaker is saying. If the speaker knows the art of misleading, he can change the thoughts and emotions of the listener easily. Rhetoric device is a technique in which the speaker wants to make an impressive expression on the audience. The argumentations are done in such a way that the speaker can get the appropriate result from the audience by making reasoning that can either be real or are stated artificially. The result from rhetorical argumentation can also result in fallacy if the debate or conversation is done falsely. KaneÃ¢â¬â¢s speech has numerous examples of bias, fallacies, and rhetoric devices. The campaigner starts his part of speech with the words that Ã¢â¬Å"only one man can rid the politics of the State of the evil domination of Boss Jim GettysÃ¢â¬ . This is a fallacy as the campaigner is pointing towards Kane. The campaigner has assumed that only Kane is eligible for demolishing the evil domination of Jim Gettys. They have labeled Jim Gettys rule as the evil domination, thus this has established a bias. As Kane starts his speech, he again creates a bias by calling Jim Gettys a villain and dishonest person. He has unfairly awarded him with these words without keeping in view what the audience thinks of him. And another fallacy is that Kane is sure that he will win the governor election since the voting has not even started. The rhetoric devices in this speech are the repetition of the words by breaking the momentum of normal speech and creating a dramatic effect. Examples are Ã¢â¬Å" Jim GettysÃ¢â¬ ¦ Jim Gettys has something less than a chanceÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"the working man...the working manÃ¢â¬ . In the first example of rhetorical device there also exists a fallacy as Kane thinks that Jim Gettys will not win the governorship. The campaigner and Kane both have made arguments and have countered the arguments. Firstly the campaigner has called Gettys an evil and labeled Kane as an ideal governor. He has said this
Friday, September 27, 2019
Why do women earn less than men examine the gender pay gap in an industry your choice and evaluate what can be done to close the pay gap - Essay Example Gender pay disparity has been associated to a number of factors, which have been discussed in various research publications. In this paper, the gender pay disparity within the healthcare industry will be evaluated based on the different professions within the industry and the disparity that exist in their pay. The paper will also discuss various approaches that can be used to seal the gender pay gap and create uniformity and motivation across the two genders. Within the healthcare industry, women have traditionally been considered to fit well into the nursing profession, an area that is considered auxiliary to the mainstream medical profession. As a result, nurses and other medical professionals such as clinical officers, laboratory technologists and other technical staff within the facility have a high population of women. However, access to equal educational opportunities has seen an increase in women medical doctors, men nurses and equal representation of the two genders in the different healthcare professions. Despite this gender progress, women have continued to receive minimal pay as compared to their male colleagues in the same job groups (Hook, Hagan, & Pettit, 2009). One of the core oiling factors in the gender inequality issue in or societies that have led to the determination of the responsibilities for the two genders is stereotypes. This has remained as the major determinant in the social inequality issue as it has continued to build on the perception that men are superior to women and should therefore be responsible for superior roles in the society. Our language that gives the male gender more dominance as compared to the male gender has supported this stereotype and this has led to a new definition for their roles (Caliendo, Lee & Mahlstedt, 2014). Women surgeons and doctors in the United States, for example, earn 71% of the total amount
Thursday, September 26, 2019
Discussions - Essay Example Backing-up data requires software tools, which are clearly the responsibility of the company to make available to the employee. In this line of reasoning, it is the responsibility of the company to purchase and make available the back-up software. However, it is the responsibility of the employee to use the software to back-up her files. --Doug The answer to who should backup company data is, it depends. I can think of two situations where the answer differs. The first situation consists of a typical user who sits in the cube and uses systems provided by the organization. In this situation, the organization must address two issues. First, they must provide a central location for users to securely save their information. They must provide policies, procedures, and technical solutions to backup those backend systems that house all critical information. The employee is not without responsibility in this situation. They must ensure that they are saving their work on those resources that provide the backup solution. Where my answer differs is from the following scenario. I have worked for and know consultants who are responsible for purchasing their own laptops. They are typically road warriors and do not frequent the office on a regular basis. Their laptops house corporate data critical to the organization.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Reconciling two approaches to attribution of the 2010 Russian heat wave - Research Paper Example The global warming epidemic led to an increase in the anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. Their conclusive outcome highly contradicted those of (Dole et al.) they stated that they used information gathered from a large ensemble recreation experiment encompassing an atmospheric and general circulation replica to exhibit that there is no substantive challenge between the two papers. In other words, the same event can occur as a result of internal generation in stipulations of magnitude and external drives in provisions of occurrence probability. The distinction in the conclusions of the papers indicates the significance of accurate and concise specifications of the questions asked in addressing the issue in the context of acknowledgment of individual weather patterns to the external drivers of climate change. There were speculations that there are contradictory explanations in answering the question of whether the heat wave occurred naturally or the extent of the anthropogenic gas emissions directed the cause. However, given the statistical data cumulated where 55,000 people lost their lives, a drop in the annual crop production by 25%, and an overall loss in the economy of an approximated 15billion dollar prompted the investigation of an answer to the society. The heat wave began at the start of July and reached its record temperatures late July and the temperatures started decreasing in August. August 19th was the last break in the high heat. The persistence posed by the anomalous high temperatures extending over a month was likely due to a jamming state of affairs not uncommon in these areas. In 2010, the blocking soaring was immensely persistent and intense accompanied by temperatures 50C above the normal mean. Taking into mind the socioeconomic and ecological factors collisions of s uch events they are of interest whether, or to what degree,
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Press Release - Essay Example Recognizing that fans are interested in more than just sports commentary, Fanzplanet (or Terry Davenport) provides an unparalleled forum for fan interaction. While traditional sports news sites only focus on major news elements, this new social network recognizes that the fan experience expands well beyond what happens between the start and end of the game. Within this spectrum of understanding there are a variety of specific elements that are implemented. As noted, the site implements social media and fan interaction as primary modes of operation. Curious about the atmosphere outside the Super Bowl or World Series? Fanzplanet allows fans to post tailgate, at-game, and home videos that record their game experiences. Fans can login and see actual videos of outside game events, then tune in on television and catch the game. There will even be Fan-Buzz cameras that capture exclusive interviews with fans at the game. In addition to video posting this site allows participants to blog and connect as part of a sports community. Traditional sporting news sites have largely operated to disseminate news, with commentary only as a second-thought. This site brings fan commentary and interaction to the foreground, as in-game blogging occurs allowing fans to directly interact and comment with each other on in-game occurrences. Fans can then add each other to communicate and debate over future games. This increased interactivity is not only informative, it allows fans to participate in the game in a way that brings the sports bar experience to their computer console. Ultimately, this site will be an exciting contribution to the sports and social networking landscape. For the casual and passionate fan, this site offers an unparalleled experience for all sporting experiences. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t miss out! Fans can also follow updates on twitter at http://twitter.com/fanzplanetfans and via their Facebook fans page at http://bit.ly/93KsFj. Members of Fanzplanet
Monday, September 23, 2019
Motives and Incentives and Their Impact On the Performance of Employees In Government Hospitals within The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that the modern business environment poses a significant challenge for businesses at both the local and international level. The global crisis has made it increasingly vital for organizations to take measures to ensure the life of their businesses, overcoming both internal and external operation factors to achieve revenue growth and corporate performance. It is widely agreed that effective management of one of the most important factors for organizations to stay profitable in a highly competitive global economy. These factors of production are the three MÃ¢â¬â¢s: materials, machine, and manpower. It is the last of these, the human resource of a company, which poses the biggest challenge. A motivated employee is a valuable asset that brings tremendous worth to an organization. This research will try to look into the style and strategies of Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, the company in focus, in dealing with their workforce and how their workf orce stays motivated and happy with their job. It is the purpose of this paper to identify the motivational strategies and incentives that would improve employee behavior in the workplace. The focus of this study will be an evaluation of the practices of hospitals in Saudi Arabia, particularly Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah. This will include an evaluation of the employee motivation and incentive strategies available to Al-Jamal Hospital, how they were applied in the organization and the effectiveness of these approaches. As the data collected for random sampling will be from a single company, this study will be demographically limited. The opinions, feelings, beliefs, and situation of participants may, therefore, be insufficient to totally represent the situations at other hospitals in Saudi Arabia or the feeling of their employees toward motivation and incentives. In terms of the secondary data from the various literature, studies, and researchers, there is a potential risk of relying upon information that cannot be proven correct within the context of this study, given that the results will not be derived not from data based on empirical study.
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Social Work Law - Essay Example Some of these problems include Ã¢â¬Å"unemployment, lack of job skill, inadequate housing, financial distress, serious illness or disability, substance abuse, unwanted pregnancy, marital problems or anti-social behavior among othersÃ¢â¬ (Kumar, 2004 p.1). The role of the social workers is to find effective and immediate solutions to these conflicts, which involve spousal or child abuse by offering consultation and counseling to their clients, and ensure that they undergo the services or treatments that ought to free them from complicated situations. In this given example, Jim is suffering from a mental disease of Ã¢â¬ËschizophreniaÃ¢â¬â¢ and has placed his family, especially the young children in unhealthy living conditions. JimÃ¢â¬â¢s medical condition is completely beyond his control and requires immediate attention. However, the drug dependency coupled with alcohol abuse and the service of penal punishment, are factors which are directly attributable to JimÃ¢â¬â¢s own m isconduct. ... Therefore, analytic and intuitive reason skills are best seen as continuum, not dichotomy. The centrality of and intuition needs to be acknowledged, but practice can be improved by developing professionalsÃ¢â¬â¢ analytic skillsÃ¢â¬ . It is a common knowledge that child-protection work is impressed with high level of emotions to ensure the well-being of the children and Ã¢â¬Å"arouse strong emotional responses in most adultsÃ¢â¬ (Munro, 2008, p. 12). Thus, social workers must be able to distinguish logical reasoning from emotions while investigating and working with the childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s abusive families. In the case of Jim and his family, the social worker assigned to investigate must be able to thresh-out emotions from pure reason. Ã¢â¬Å"The ideal thinker is often portrayed as unemotional, remote person, absorbed in conscious cogitation and allowing no extraneous materials, such as feelings to interfere with their judgments and conclusions in deciding cases involving childre nÃ¢â¬â¢s rightsÃ¢â¬ (Munro, 2008, p. 12). The social worker assigned to monitor JimÃ¢â¬â¢s children should ensure that they are given the proper care, attention and guidance. According to Barker (2008), this is in consonance with governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s comprehensive program, Ã¢â¬ËEvery Child Matters of 2003Ã¢â¬â¢, which caters to Ã¢â¬Å"childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s services involving health, education, and social services, such as play work and a childÃ¢â¬â¢s yearly development. The program is geared toward five outcomes that all young children are entitled to: being healthy, staying safe, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution and achieving economic well-beingÃ¢â¬ . Pursuant to UK laws on the right of the children, the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Act of 1989, particularly, Section 31
Saturday, September 21, 2019
12 Angry Men by Sidney Lumet Essay In the field of psychology and psychiatry, the trend has always been towards individual therapy. The trend in psychoanalysis has always focused in the individual that the individual role and participation in society has been deemed as secondary. However, recently the trend has been moving towards the group with consideration to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s psychology having full bearing to the manner in which he interacts and participates in his society. Irvin D. Yalom has stated that there are 12 therapeutic factors involved in group psychotherapy. To be able to fully understand these concepts, a study of the movie 12 Angry Men will be analyzed in the point of view of YalomÃ¢â¬â¢s factors. The movie 12 Angry Men by Sidney Lumet is about a jury of 12 men trying to decide the fate of an 18 year old boy who has been accused of murdering his own father. The whole movie takes place in the jury room where all 12 men are locked inside until such time that a unanimous verdict has been reached. The movie begins with 11 of the members of the jury voting that the child is guilty. The story then revolves on the process by which the 12th member, played by Henry Fonda, is able to change the verdict into a not guilty decision. See more:Ã The 3 Types of Satire Essay The movie becomes a perfect example of YalomÃ¢â¬â¢s factors as well as group therapy as the dynamics that occur within the group slowly shows how each personÃ¢â¬â¢s subjective psychology and personality is brought into the interaction of the group which eventually finalizes the decision of the group. Four of YalomÃ¢â¬â¢s factors are most apparent in the movie Group Cohesiveness, Interpersonal Learning, and Catharsis and Existential factors. Group cohesiveness. There are two kinds of cohesiveness and what differentiates the two is the reason for which that group stays together. The two kinds are emotion-related and task related. Emotion-related is the kind of group cohesion founded on emotional connection and feelings members have for the other members of the group. Task-related cohesion is founded on the goals that the group has set for themselves and the achievement of these goals is what makes the group cohesive. In the case of 12 Angry Men, the only similarity that these 12 men have is that they are all members of the jury for this particular case. In the beginning, as each member enters the room, a discussion of past jury duties are discussed and this duty served as a commonality between all the members of the jury. This commonality is a superficial factor that added to the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s cohesion. The main factor is that they all share the same goal which is to reach a verdict. The cohesion of the group is further enforced by the fact that the door is locked and the group cannot leave until such time that they all agree on the verdict without contest. The locked door forced them to become cohesive as well as the duty to decide on the fate of the 18year old boy. Interpersonal Learning. Interpersonal learning can be achieved with either an input of information, wherein people learn from the feedback that the other members in the group provide, or from an output of information wherein the environment provides an outlet where members can interact with each other openly and adaptively. Without the output Interpersonal Learning, the ability for the members to open up will be hindered and thus input interpersonal learning will be greatly limited as the people will hold their thoughts and not give the proper feedback required for the others to be able to learn from the experience. In the case of the movie, the initial environment was conducive to any of the jury members to open up. As a matter of fact, the initial environment was quite aloof to the point of hostile. The hostility burst forth as one member dissented from the majority vote. This same factor that caused the hostility, however, is the same factor that created the environment for the members of the jury to open up. Because of Henry FondaÃ¢â¬â¢s character who refused to give a guilty verdict, a discussion ensued which allowed every single person in that jury to give his reasoning as to why a guilty verdict should be decided upon. With every single justification, more information is given out by the people from which the others give a reaction. This reaction serves as the feedback required for people to learn from. Within the group there are passive members who just listen instead of fully participating in the interaction. Although, they remain passive, learning is still occurring. Through the interaction of the others in the group, individuals are allowed to assess their own beliefs passively in relation to the discussion going on. This passivity was most apparent in the characters of John Fiedler (Juror #2), Edward Binns (Juror #6) and Robert Webber (Juror #12). They were not fully active in the discussion but whose decisions were based on the learning that occurred due to the interaction of the other members around them. Catharsis. Catharsis is the purging of strong emotions regarding the past or the present. There are different ways to achieve catharsis. Some express their emotions through art and literature. The most common, however, is just simply talking about it and having a good cry about the situation. In the case of a group, catharsis can occur through the constant interaction that comes into a group. In a sense, to fully achieve catharsis in a group setting, interpersonal learning is required. It is only through an environment when people are open and are allowed to give feedbacks that the opportunity to let go of strong emotions occur. In the movie, 12 Angry Men, a lot of the jurors have their own personal problems. The characters of Lee Cobb (Juror #3), Jack Klugman (Juror #6), Ed Begley (Juror #10) and George Voskovec (Juror #11) all had strong emotions rooted in their past that was brought to the fore because of the case of the 18 year old boy and the discussion to reach a verdict. Klugman, Begley and VoskovecÃ¢â¬â¢s issues were mainly rooted in discrimination and prejudice. Klugman had issues about slum children being discriminated as criminals when he was brought up in the slums; Begley based on his experiences, had a strong prejudice against poor people; while VoskovecÃ¢â¬â¢s issues deal with the fact that like the poor he is being discriminated as a foreigner/immigrant. The one who achieved the strongest catharsis was the character of Cobb has he experienced problems with his own son and was still having problems with his son. With Cobb, he was trying to get his anger towards his son out on the 18 year old boy who he found ungrateful for killing his father. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t care much about the facts but cared only of exacting his revenge towards ungrateful children on the accused. With the constant deliberation as to the verdict, eventually, the truth came out and he was able to fully purge his emotions and give a rational verdict of not guilty. His breakdown was a sign of his complete catharsis regarding the matter of his son as this showed the realization of his problem as well as the release of it. Existential factors. Existential factors refer to the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s acceptance of life responsibilities. Initially, the jury was not accepting the responsibility of deciding on the life of the 18 year old boy. They casually decided that he was guilty simply because they had better things to do. It is only Henry FondaÃ¢â¬â¢s character that made them realize the gravity of their decision. He alone made them accept the groupÃ¢â¬â¢s responsibility over the life and death of an 18 year old boy. As this was accepted, the group in earnest was able to weigh the pros and cons of the situation, re-assess the case in depth as well as analyze their selves and their own lives and make a true decision based on all these factors that affect both their life and the life of the accused boy. In conclusion, the trend in psychology is changing from individual psychoanalysis to group psychotherapy and rightly so as in the present group interaction and group dynamics can be found in almost any institution of society. Moreover, these groups have a great bearing on the lives of the people both as individuals as well as a whole society. The movie 12 Angry Men is a perfect example of the necessity of group psychotherapy as well as an example of how the therapeutic factors work in a given situation for a group. Sometimes, these factors are unconsciously done without the presence of a supervisor or counselor as witnessed in the movie. Notwithstanding, the movie has shown how important it is to have group psychotherapy as there are times where a group can decide on whether or not a person should continue living or should be punished by death.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Analysing The Political Effect Of The Olympics Politics Essay The Olympic games are supposed to unite the world; they were created as a tool to help connect individual countries; they are a way to put politics behind us and compete athletically; however the summer Olympic games in 1980 and 1984, held in Moscow and Los Angeles respectively, showed that they could be used as leverage when one country disagreed with another. The 1979 invasion of Afghanistan, the Cold War, and disagreements among leaders of different countries played a role in the boycott of these Olympic Games. The tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union as well as their boycott of the Olympic Games in the 1980s will be analyzed in this report. After World War II had come and gone a conflict arose between the United States and the Soviet Union. This conflict is believed to have lasted all the way into the early 1990s when the Soviet Union collapsed. The war was passed down from leader to leader in each country. It was not a conventional war but instead was mostly fought with threats. Each country would use the media to condemn the other. It is unknown how long the war lasted. This is a huge debate among many historians (Cold War). The only post World War II super powers were the Soviet Union and the United States. Each country began investing time and money in the development of nuclear weapons. This led to what is known as a nuclear arms race. Each side tried to develop more nuclear weapons than the other. This dangerous situation led to the each country using words to fight instead of weapons. They were afraid of the outcome if nuclear weapons were used (Cold War). As a result, tensions were high between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union tried to make peace with the rest of Eastern Europe even though they had been invaded by some of the Eastern Europe nations in both World War I and World War II. They used their communist influence in liberating nations of Eastern Europe after World War I. As a result, the world began to see other communist nations in Eastern Europe. They hoped that this would protect their borders from future invasion (Cold War). This also helped unite Eastern Europe and led to more nations supporting the Soviet Union. Afghanistan is a country in the Middle East just west of Pakistan. A country with more than 28 million people, as of a July 2009 estimate by the U.S. Department of State, its size is just smaller than the state of Texas (Afghanistan). In 1979, after the Afghan Prime Minister Hafizullah Amin refused to cooperate with the Soviet Union on how to stabilize the government, the Soviets invaded Kabul. Once they landed in the countrys capital they killed Hafizullah Amin and replaced him by with a new man chosen by them as the new Prime Minister (Afghanistan). The new leader needed the Russian army to maintain control of the government because the mostly Muslim Mujahedeen was fighting back. As a result of the Mujahedeens resistance the Soviets were only able to keep control of the major cities while 75% of the country was controlled by the Mujahedeen (Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan). The United States, in the midst of the Cold War with the Soviet Union, denounced the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. They did not want the Soviet Union to spread communism any further than they already had in the rest of Eastern Europe. The U.S. supported the Mujahedeen in their efforts against the Soviet Union. They supplied them with money and various weapons, and also began to use the term freedom fighters to describe them. This was done in spite of the Soviets claiming that they did not invade Afghanistan but they were invited by the Prime Minister. They also said that they were there to support a legitimate government and the Mujahedeen were just terrorists (Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan). The invasion took place just months before the 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow. President Jimmy Carter informed the American people of the boycott in his January 23, 1980 State of the Union Address. Saudi Arabia was the first to boycott the 1980 Olympic Games due to the invasion taking place on Islamic Land. They were backed up by many other countries including Canada, West Germany, Japan, the United States, and Israel. In total 60 other countries joined Saudi Arabia including the United States. Many cited the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan as the main cause for their boycott. However, some did say that they did to not participate due to economic reasons (Tristham). Four years later the 1984 Olympic Games were held in Los Angeles. The Soviet Union issued a statement, chauvinistic sentiments and an anti-Soviet hysteria being whipped up in the United States. They decided to boycott the Olympics due to those reasons. Thirteen other Soviet Allies also choose to boycott the Los Angeles Olympics. Iran was the only country to boycott both the 1980 and 1984 Olympics (Olympic Boycott History). That same year the Soviet Union organized the Druzhba Games. Other countries, which boycotted the 1984 Olympics, participated in the event. The motto of these games was Sport, Friendship, Peace (Olympic Boycott History). The Soviet Union pulled out of Afghanistan in 1989. That same year the Berlin Wall collapsed, which marked an end to a communist Germany. Two years later the Soviet Union also collapsed and the United States was able to begin to establish good relations with Russia. Although much has changed between the United States and Russia it is not hard to see how the tension of a Cold War and a Soviet invasion of Afghanistan led to a boycott of the Olympics. The Olympics are a time to put the politics behind us and unite in sport. As shown in the 1980 and 1984 Olympic Games, this is not always the case.
Thursday, September 19, 2019
Humanity in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner The issue of humanity is one of the central themes in "Blade Runner." Countless arguments have taken place over whether or not Deckard is a replicant. The replicants are supposed to be "better humans than humans." Director Ridley Scott has many ways to communicate this theme, but one of the most prevalent is eyes. Human eyes are featured both in the beginning of the film and near the end. After a brief introductory text crawl which explains the world in which the movie takes place, "Blade Runner" cuts to a dark, futuristic Los Angeles. There are some flying cars, but mostly we see dark, smog-filled skies and smokestacks belching fire. As the camera moves across this landscape, blue eyes are superimposed on the screen. These eyes first establish traditional humanity as a force in the film. The eyes belong to Holden, a blade runner. Blade runners are police officers who hunt down and kill, or "retire", replicants. Holden is administering the Voight-Kampff test, which determines whether its subject is a traditional human or a replicant, to "Leon." Leon is a replicant, and when Holden asks him a question that he can't answer, Leon shoots him. Eyes are often thought of as the windows to the soul. It is this nebulous concept of the soul which is often used as the line in the sand dividing humanity from everything else. The Voight-Kampff test is designed to measure emotional responses. If the subject doesn't have any, it's a replicant. Leon was going to fail the test and be killed, so he killed Holden. Isn't that a display of the particular emotion known as rage? Well, maybe it's a rational decision or an instinctual survival reaction. However, a later scene lends weight to the... ...l are in love and want to run off together. As they are leaving his apartment, Deckard sees an origami unicorn on the floor. One can interpret this as Gaff showing Deckard that his memories are implants. Regardless of whether one accepts the unicorn interpretation given here, the question of what it means to be human is a core theme in "Blade Runner." After-the-fact directorial revelations aside, by leaving an element of ambiguity in Deckard's identity, Scott mirrors ambiguity in the question. He doesn't have a definite answer, he's not pushing some agenda. Even now, with little help from technology, we face a species-wide identity crisis. The whole issue of the legality of abortions stems from a disagreement over what constitutes a human. This is an important question that we're going to have to do a better job of answering, and Scott makes an excellent start. Humanity in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner Essay -- Film Movies Humanity in Ridley Scott's Blade Runner The issue of humanity is one of the central themes in "Blade Runner." Countless arguments have taken place over whether or not Deckard is a replicant. The replicants are supposed to be "better humans than humans." Director Ridley Scott has many ways to communicate this theme, but one of the most prevalent is eyes. Human eyes are featured both in the beginning of the film and near the end. After a brief introductory text crawl which explains the world in which the movie takes place, "Blade Runner" cuts to a dark, futuristic Los Angeles. There are some flying cars, but mostly we see dark, smog-filled skies and smokestacks belching fire. As the camera moves across this landscape, blue eyes are superimposed on the screen. These eyes first establish traditional humanity as a force in the film. The eyes belong to Holden, a blade runner. Blade runners are police officers who hunt down and kill, or "retire", replicants. Holden is administering the Voight-Kampff test, which determines whether its subject is a traditional human or a replicant, to "Leon." Leon is a replicant, and when Holden asks him a question that he can't answer, Leon shoots him. Eyes are often thought of as the windows to the soul. It is this nebulous concept of the soul which is often used as the line in the sand dividing humanity from everything else. The Voight-Kampff test is designed to measure emotional responses. If the subject doesn't have any, it's a replicant. Leon was going to fail the test and be killed, so he killed Holden. Isn't that a display of the particular emotion known as rage? Well, maybe it's a rational decision or an instinctual survival reaction. However, a later scene lends weight to the... ...l are in love and want to run off together. As they are leaving his apartment, Deckard sees an origami unicorn on the floor. One can interpret this as Gaff showing Deckard that his memories are implants. Regardless of whether one accepts the unicorn interpretation given here, the question of what it means to be human is a core theme in "Blade Runner." After-the-fact directorial revelations aside, by leaving an element of ambiguity in Deckard's identity, Scott mirrors ambiguity in the question. He doesn't have a definite answer, he's not pushing some agenda. Even now, with little help from technology, we face a species-wide identity crisis. The whole issue of the legality of abortions stems from a disagreement over what constitutes a human. This is an important question that we're going to have to do a better job of answering, and Scott makes an excellent start.
Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The landlocked country of Burkina Faso ranks 183 out of 187 countries in the 2012 Human Development Index, indicating that the quality of life in the African country is tremendously low (World Bank). Despite the United States having contributed $520 million to the underdeveloped country in recent years in an act of humanitarianism; Burkina Faso is still economically unstable, forcing them to heavily depend on their most profitable industries (Kerry). Gold mining is currently a source of income that the country is greatly relying on. In order to grow financially, gold mine managers have resorted to trafficking children for the worst forms of labor, driving them out of their schools and away from their families. Economic dependence on product exports in the underdeveloped country of Burkina Faso leads to child labor because perilous conditions must be endured, low wages must be paid, and workers must be willing to labor. The revenue made from gold mining in Burkina Faso is mainly produced by Burkinabe children, seeing that mining is a hazardous undertaking that comes with low wages. Burkina Faso is a newcomer in the scene of gold mining, as production has more than doubled, reaching 32 tons of gold in 2012 and increasing by 41% from 2010 to 2011 (DFATD). More than 200 gold mines are spread out all through the country, most of them remote and unknown of (Price). These remote locations are difficult for organizations such as local NGOs, UN Gift, and Interpol to track down, making the chances of arresting a trafficker quite slim. Children are brought to these mining sites, because the conditions there are very difficult to work in. Employers make their workforce work 14 hours a day, 6-7 days a week. Workers only receive room and boar... ...ks/2013/03/206636.htm>. Price, Larry C. "Burkina Faso: Childhoods Lost in the Gold Mines." Pulitzer Center. Pulitzer Center, 28 Apr. 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. . Price, Larry C. "Children in Burkina Faso Take on Dirty, Dangerous Work of Digging Up Gold." PBS. PBS, 10 July 2013. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. . Sollinger, Marc. "Children Mining for Gold in Burkina Faso." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. . Van De Glind, Hans. "Migration and Child Labour." UN GIFT HUB. UNODC, Sept. 2010. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. .
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Analysis of Picasso's Guernica PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s Guernica is one of the most powerful and disturbing anti-war paintings ever produced. I have always admired PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s works and wanted to write a dissertation on some aspects of his work. I first saw his Guernica as a poster in my History of Art room. I was fascinated by it and wanted to find out more about its background. I then went to Madrid and saw this vast painting in the Rene Sofia Museum. Its scale and disruptiveness intrigued me to study this painting in depth. I will look at a short background to the Spanish Civil War and why it happened and how it destroyed the Basque town Guernica and everyone living in it. Then I will look at and study PicassoÃâÃ¢â¬â¢s reaction to the bombing and how his famous anti-war painting came about. Then I will look at the contemporary reactions to Guernica and how it still affects people alive today. Section 1: The Spanish Civil War This is the background, the context, which informed Picasso, a Catalan in voluntary exile in Paris, and led to the painting of Guernica, which will be discussed in the following sections. Between 1936 and 1939 over 500,000 people were killed in the Spanish Civil War. The depression of the 1930s hit Spain hard. Unemployment rose and Rivera 1* did not have the ability to sort out SpainÃ¢â¬â¢s financial mess. The army withdrew its support and Rivera had to resign. In April 1931, elections were held in Spain, which resulted in Republicans winning all the major cities in Spain. Alfonso 2* decided to abdicate, as he feared that if he stayed on, Spain would plummet into chaos. Those victorious at the election then declared Spain a Republic and the monarchy was abolished. The new Republic immediately faced a number of major problems, some of which concerned two important regions in Spain, Catalonia and the Basque region, who wanted independence. Had their requests been successful, it would have lead to the break-up of Spain. The government also believed that the army had too much say in politics and determined to reduce its influence. Spain was primarily an agricultural nation and the 1930s Depression had hit prices for crops. Prime exports such as olive oil and wine fell in value and previously used agricultural land fell into disuse. The little industry that Spain had was also hit by the Depression. Iron and stee... ... Spanish Civil War. In this opinion at least one of the intentions of the painting Ã¢â¬â to have a propagandist function ÃâÃ¢â¬â has been successfully fulfilled. When I first saw a reproduction of Guernica I had no idea about its contents and the civil war that inspired its iconography. As a result of my research for this dissertation I have learnt so much more about nationality, the context of the war, and, of course PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s deep feelings as a Catalan. I only really knew about Picasso from his Cubist works but now I have discovered a different side of Picasso which I had never learnt about before. Bibliography Books. Picasso Ã¢â¬â Timothy Hilton A Picasso Anthology Ã¢â¬â Edited by Marilyn McCully PicassoÃ¢â¬â¢s War Ã¢â¬â Russell Martin Picasso Ã¢â¬â Ingo F. Walther The Shock of the New Ã¢â¬â Robert Hughes Picasso Ã¢â¬â Lorraine Levy Pablo Picasso, A modern Master Ã¢â¬â Richard Leslie Guernica Ã¢â¬â Paloma Esteban Leal Paper Museum Ã¢â¬â Andrew Graham-Dixon The Story of Modern Art Ã¢â¬â Norbert Lynton Visual Arts in the 20th Century Ã¢â¬â Edward Lucie-Smith. Newspapers and magazines. The Times March 3 1999 The Times April 28 1937 Web sites. www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk
Monday, September 16, 2019
On December 20, 2008, I woke up with a cheery disposition as I thought about the fast approaching Christmas Eve. I was very excited about it as this is a time when the whole family gathers and relatives from all over the state visit and stay for the night.This year, the venue is our home which makes the event more exciting. On this morning, the whole family went together to the Sunday Church Service as was our custom. My parents, being devoted Christians, always attend Church on Sundays and have instilled to us, their children, the same habit.We had a pleasant time at the service as the pastor was very eloquent in his sermon and touched on matters that were important and significant today. After the service, my parents and I parted ways as they went on to our house while I was tasked to do grocery shopping for the Christmas Eve celebration at our home. Since the grocery was a just a few blocks away, I opted to walk and savor the fresh air.As I neared the grocery store, I stopped to t ie the laces of my rubber shoes. While knotting it back, I noticed a small wallet off to the side of the pavement, partially covered by a bin of garbage. I was surprised and I started to pick up the small brown wallet. I contemplated on whether to open the wallet or just give it to some security officer insider the grocery store. I then proceeded inside the grocery however my curiosity got the better of me so I entered the washroom and sat inside one of the vacant cubicles. I started to open the wallet and look inside.Inside the wallet, my eyes got huge as I found approximately 2,914 dollars in cash. My first thought was Ã¢â¬Å"Whoa. This is a lot of moneyÃ¢â¬ and for a moment, I just stood there dumbstruck and at a loss as to what action to take. I then found five credit cards inside the wallet will the pin number of each credit card written on a piece of sticky paper and attached at the back of the card. After a few seconds, I will be honest in saying that my mind started to ru n down on how I could use the money: the things I could buy and such. But then I stopped myself and started to delve inside the wallet to look for any identification cards. Ã
Culture, Biology and Lifestyle Cause Forty Nine Percent of Black American Women to be Obese Abstract. Obesity is a major factor in health today. Certain ethnic groups and genders suffer from obesity more than others. Around 49% of all Black American women are classified obese today. There are many reasons for this. But the three the Black American women are susceptible to are culture, lifestyle and biology. Forty nine percent of Black American women are obese. This is an over representation compared to 38% of Latina women and 33% of non-Hispanic white women. (Phelan, Johnson, Wesley). Many factors determine a personÃ¢â¬â¢s weight and health status. Economics, lifestyle, diet, culture, biology and society all affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s body size and composition. Culture, biology and lifestyle have the largest impact on why Black American women are obese. Health, economic and societal implications of obesity are overwhelming and affect every person in this country. The medical community defines obesity as having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30 or greater. BMI is simply a comparison of weight to height. The actual formula is weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. A BMI of greater than 25 but less than 30 is considered overweight and a BMI of greater than 40 is considered morbidly obese. BMI is a comparison of weight to height, not fat to height. BMI is a useful tool for most of the population, but does not work well for heavily muscled people, such as body builders. Fat is damaging to health. Muscle is not. The general population knows that obesity causes diabetes and heart problems. But obesity is much more severe than that. Obesity causes health problems that many find eye opening. Obesity causes hardening of the arteries, increased cholesterol and cardiac failure. In addition to damaging the heart and arteries obesity causes cancer. Twenty percent of all cancer related deaths in women are attributed to obesity (Dixon). Fifty percent of all Type II diabetes patients are obese. (Dixon). Obesity is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver disease (Kogiso, Moriyoshi and Nagahara). Obesity causes many more not so well known, but still very concerning health issues. Thirty one percent of all arthritis patients are obese. (Dixon). Sixty three percent of women who suffer from osteoarthritis are obese (Dixon). Obese women show a 37% increased risk of depression (Stunkard). Obesity can cause infertility and pregnancy complications (Phelan, Edelman). It even can reduce the effectiveness of birth control. Obese people are three times more apt to suffer from sleep apnea (Visscher, Seidell). And for the real shocker, 300,000 deaths per year in the United States alone are attributed to obesity! Obesity is only second to smoking in preventable deaths per year in the US. (Visscher, Seidell). The reasons nearly half of all Black women in the US are obese are complex and many. We can point our finger at economics, lifestyle, society, biology, diet, culture. Culture, lifestyle and biology are the primary reasons 49% of Black women in the US are obese. Studies have shown that culture can have a profound effect on body size. Several studies have found that the Black American population has a preference for larger body size (Johnson). Portia Johnson, in her article, Scholarly Perspectives on Obesity in Black American Women, references a 2002 study that shows that African American men prefer African American women with a larger body size. The same author also cites a 2006 study that shows that African American women Ã¢â¬Å"describe a model of health that speaks to the Black womenÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural belief that a larger body size is idealÃ¢â¬ (Johnson). African women also have a preference for larger bodies. A 2006 study on ethnic Zulus, Zulu migrants to London, and Anglo Londoners show a preference for larger body size by the Zulu migrants and the ethnic Zulus (Brewis 88). Each participant in were shown gray scale images of women of known BMI. The participants were asked to choose which image represented the most healthy and attractive body. The Anglo Londoners chose a BMI size of 20, the ethnic Zulus chose BMI 26 and the migrant Zulus chose a BMI of 24. Dr. James Kirby and colleagues made the interesting discovery that simply living in a community with 25% or more non-Hispanic blacks increases ones propensity of being overweight (Kirby et al). Similarly Dr. Kirby discovered that living in a community of 25% or more Asians decreases a personÃ¢â¬â¢s propensity of being overweight (Kirby et al). Kirby surmises this is due to the availability of healthy food, parks, sidewalks and recreation facilities in each community. Kirby found that a predominance of black Americans live in communities with fewer recreational facilities, gyms, parks and fewer choices of healthy food than other ethnicities. The same study also found more fast food restaurants and convenience food stores in predominately black and Hispanic American communities. Perhaps the most convincing evidence is in the words of African American women. In her article Ã¢â¬ËVoices from the Inside: African American WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspectives on Healthy LifestylesÃ¢â¬â¢ Jill Rowe interviewed African American women on healthy lifestyles and food choices. One woman explains eating in African American culture as: ItÃ¢â¬â¢s almost like every person in my family has something they cook real good and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to hurt anybodyÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. When you go to your mamaÃ¢â¬â¢s house, IÃ¢â¬â¢ve always gone to the refrigerator. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how African Americans show their love. From the birthday parties, to when you have company. My family, when weÃ¢â¬â¢re happy we eat. When weÃ¢â¬â¢re sad, we eat. We eat when weÃ¢â¬â¢re married, we eat when weÃ¢â¬â¢re born, we eat when we die. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s always, whoÃ¢â¬â¢s bringing the fried chicken and pound cake. (Rowe) Culture can significantly affect a personÃ¢â¬â¢s weight. But we should also be aware that biology can affect weight too. Researchers have found that Black American women have a lower Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR). RMR is the rate at which energy (calories) are metabolized to keep organs functioning at rest. Black American women have a lower RMR than white or Hispanic women. This means they burn fewer calories throughout the day and function more efficiently than white Americans making it harder to lose weight (Johnson). A 1996 study found that the Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) of black American women was lower than for Caucasian American women. The researchers measured the REE of each participant and found that the Black women had a REE of 1790 calories per day at rest, while the Caucasian women had an REE of 1949 calories per day at rest. Simply put this means that Caucasian women burn, on average, 250 more calories per day at rest than Black American women do. This makes it harder for black women to lose weight (Johnson). Researchers have also discovered that Black Americans have an over expression of fatty acid transport protein. This means that more fat is delivered to fat storage cells making it easier for Black Americans to store fat than white Americans (Barakat). Researchers have measured and found more upper body fat in Black Women compared to white women. A larger below the skin level (subcutaneous) fat level was found in Black Women as compared to white American women (Conway). Diet and exercise are part of a personsÃ¢â¬â¢ lifestyle and both have a significant impact on weight and health. Several studies have proven that Black Americans eat more sweetened foods as compared to European Americans. Portia Johnson and colleagues cite a 2000 study on preference for sweet food amongst African Americans and European Americans. The study offered taste tests to each ethnic group and compared how each group responded to sweets. The researchers discovered that Black Americans ate more of the sweetened foods offered at various intervals during a taste test (Johnson). They conclude that African Americans could be using a sweetened food to compensate for greater perceived stress causing greater weight gain and obesity. Angelia Paschal and colleagues examined the results of a study on self-reported diet and exercise habits of African American men and women. They found that 55-75% of the women in their study rarely exercise. They also found that 76% of all participants did not eat the minimum daily requirements for fruit and less than half met the minimum requirements for vegetables. Not surprisingly this study reports that 62% of participants were diagnosed with hypertension and 14% were diagnosed with elevated blood sugar levels and/or diabetes (Paschal et al). A study that compared fitness of Latina American women to Black American women found similar results. Ã¢â¬Å"More than one-half of the women reported engaging in no regular physical activity. However, the substantial variability in the number of minutes exercised per week points to the need to investigate methods to enhance the duration of physical activity. Ã¢â¬ (Sanchez-Johnsen et al). Genesis, a church based health and fitness program aimed at Black Americans, found that many of the participants did not correlate obesity with poor health. The participants in Genesis completed a self-reported survey where only 16% indicated they were obese, but when clinically measured 87% were found to be overweight or obese. This indicates that participants failed to connect excess weight with medical risk, possibly due to cultural conditioning, personal denial or not associating body weight with health risk (Cowart et al). It is not all gloom and doom for women of color in the US. Culture, biology and lifestyle are all things that can be changed or at least worked with to lose weight and gain fitness. There are several programs in this country aimed at overall fitness for Black American women. The Genesis program has worked with black Americans through churches and found this combination very successful. Genesis provided health and diet education, exercise prescriptions and a motivation partner. Some of their successes include a 71% less soda consumption, fried meat consumption was reduced from 91% to 55%. The percent of respondents reporting no exercise at all went from 45% at the start of the program to 27% on the post pilot survey (Cowart et al). Just as diet, lifestyle and culture can be changed so can biology. Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) can be raised by obtaining a leaner body mass as muscle is more active than fat. Withers and colleagues have proved this with a study conducted on 49-70 year old women. Their study has found that aerobic training in older women increases RMR. They compared active women to non-active women and found that the active women had a significantly higher RMR. Having a body composition of more lean mass to fat mass greatly has Ã¢â¬Å"implications for increased independence and improved quality of life. Ã¢â¬ (Withers et al). Black American women have special challenges and considerations in weight loss and fitness. They face a culture that encourages eating and appreciates large body size, a more efficient metabolic system that uses fewer calories at rest, a propensity for their bodies to store fat, and a lifestyle that makes diet and exercise difficult. Yet knowing these challenges is half the battle. With knowledge, the support of the community and their family, and commitment they can overcome these challenges and reach a goal of lifetime fitness and health. Works Cited Barakat, HA. Ã¢â¬Å"Obesity; Overexpression of Fatty Acid Transport Proteins May Contribute to Obesity in Black Women. Ã¢â¬ Science Letter. 7 Feb 2006. 1218. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Brewis, Alexandra. Obesity Cultural and Biocultural Perspectives. New Brunswick. Rutgers University Press. (2011). Print. Conway, Joan. Ã¢â¬Å"Ethnicity and Energy StoresÃ¢â¬ . The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 62. 5. Nov 1995. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Cowart, Luvenia. et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Designing and Pilot-Testing a Church-Based Community Program to Reduce Obesity among African Americans. Ã¢â¬ ABNF Journal. 21. 1. (2010). 4-10. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Dixon, John. Ã¢â¬Å"The Effect of Obesity on Health Outcomes. Ã¢â¬ Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Vol. 316. Issue 2. 25 Mar 10. 104-108. Endocrine Aspects of Obesity. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Edelman, Allison. Ã¢â¬Å"Special Feature: Do We Have a Problem? Obesity and Contraception. Ã¢â¬ OB GYN Clinical Alert. Dec 2011. n. pag. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Johnson, Portia; Yvonne Wesley. Ã¢â¬Å"Scholarly Perspectives on Obesity among Black Women. Ã¢â¬ ABNF Journal. 23. 3. (2012). 46-50. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Kirby, James, et. al. Ã¢â¬Å"Race, Place, and Obesity: The Complex Relationships among Community Racial/Ethnic Composition, Individual Race/Ethnicity, and Obesity in the United States. Ã¢â¬ American Journal of Public Health. 102. 8. Aug 2012. 1572-1578. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Kogiso, Tomomi. et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Clinical Significance with Fatty Liver Associated with Metabolic Syndrome. Ã¢â¬ Hepatology Research. Vol. 37. Issue 9. Sep 2007. 711-721. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Paschal, Angelia. et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Baseline Assessment of the Heath Status and Health Behaviors of African American Participating in the Activities for Life Program: A Community Based Health Intervention Program. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Community Health. 29. 4. Aug 2004. 305-318. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Phelan, Sharon. Ã¢â¬Å"Obesity in the American Population: Calories, Cost and Culture. Ã¢â¬ American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Volume 203, Issue 6, Dec 2010. 522Ã¢â¬â524. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Rowe, Jill. Ã¢â¬Å"Voices From the Inside: African American WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspectives on Healthy Lifestyles. Ã¢â¬ Health Education and Behavior. Vol. 37. Dec 2010. 789-800. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Sanchez-Johnsen, Lisa. et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Ethnic Differences in Correlates of Obesity between Latin-American and Black Women. Ã¢â¬ Obesity Research. 12. 4. Apr 2004. 652-660. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Stunkard, Albert. Ã¢â¬Å"Depression and Obesity. Ã¢â¬ Biological Psychology. Vol. 54 Issue 3. 1 Aug 2003. 330-337. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Visscher, Tommy, Jacob Seidell. Ã¢â¬Å"The Public Health Impact of Obesity. Ã¢â¬ Annual Review of Public Health. (2001). 355-375. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Withers, RT. et al. Ã¢â¬Å"Energy Metabolism in Sedentary and Active 49- to 70-yr-old Women. Ã¢â¬ Journal of Applied Physiology. Vol. 84. Apr 1998. 1333-1340. Web. 18 Feb 2013. Bibliography Brewis, Alexandra. Obesity Cultural and Biocultural Perspectives. New Brunswick. Rutgers University Press. (2011). Print. BrewisÃ¢â¬â¢ book is a must read for anyone studying, researching or working in health, weight management or fitness. The author takes a look at obesity from an anthropologistÃ¢â¬â¢s standpoint. Where did obesity originate? How does if effect certain races/genders more than others? These are some of the questions answered. The author has lived in different cultures and worked with different ethnicities obtaining answers to some of the mysteries surrounding weight gain. She has uncovered reasons why obesity is prevalent in the United States and other countries. And discusses why some ethnicities are more vulnerable to weight gain after migrating to the United States or other developed nations. The author has studied the culture of the Pima Indians of both the US and Mexico and explains why obesity affects the US Pimas more than the Mexican Pimas. Brewis also explains why some ethnicities find larger body weigh acceptable and why some ethnicities have larger males than females and why they find this perfectly normal. Biagioli, Brian. Advanced Concepts of Personal Training. National Council on Strength and Fitness. (2007). Print. This book was by a medical doctor. This manual is applicable to anyone interested in learning more about physical fitness, nutrition, physiology, body composition and exercise mechanics. It is the National Council on Strength and FitnessÃ¢â¬â¢ guide for all their certified personal trainer candidates. The manual contains 540 pages with many illustrations explaining obesity, Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR), Body Mass Index (BMI) and physiology. This manual includes chapters on special populations such as women, children and special needs individuals. HBO The Weight of the Nation. HBO Documentary Films; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; National Institute of Health. Et al. Various actors/directors. (2007). DVD. This is a four part documentary on obesity in America. Each part is approximately one hour long. The parts consist of consequences, choices, children in crisis and challenges. The films explore why the United States is facing an obesity crisis, and what we can do about it now. Various health experts narrate the films. Interviews are conducted with a host of citizens dealing with obesity right now. They tell in their own words the challenges they face. There is significant commentary and interview on ethnicities, females, citizens living in inner cities and the issues surrounding obesity and weight gain. The Skinny on Obesity. Perf. Robert Lustig et al. UCTV Prime. 12 Apr. 2012. Web Video. This video series plays on UCSF Prime TV online. Dr. Robert Lustig is endocrine expert at the UCSF ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Hospital. This is a seven part series that tackles the basics of the obesity epidemic such as sugar, hormones, fast food, childhood obesity, and endocrine system. Each part is about 15 minutes long. Only a basic understanding of health and physiology is needed to fully understand concepts presented. Platkin, Charles. The Automatic Diet. New York. Penguin. 2005. Print. This book discusses how to slowly improve your diet over time with small changes. Dr. Platkin holds a master of public health and is one of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s leading public health advocates. He writes The Diet Detective, a syndicated article that appears in hundreds of newspapers throughout the country. His book takes the reader through small steps of diet and lifestyle changes that together create a whole new diet makeover making healthful eating simple and thus Ã¢â¬ËautomaticÃ¢â¬â¢.
Sunday, September 15, 2019
Advocacy is the fighting a cause for an individual or group of invididuals. Many people today need and use an advocate. For example, a social worker advocates for a client so that the client can receive state assistance benefits. An advocate usually pleads or defends a position. The wealthy usually do not need an advocate as they have the means to solve the problem or issue themselves. Many programs from Catholic charities to the federal food stamp programs employee advocates. In the State of Nevada there are local charities that advocate for the protection of children and fight for the rights of prisoners and victims of crimes. Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of ErrantÃ¢â¬â¢s and the Recovery Group Cure, (Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of ErrantÃ¢â¬â¢s) and the Recovery Group Inc. are such charities that advocate for prisoners in the State of Nevada Legislature in hopes to create laws equal and just. Carson City Nevada is the state capital of Nevada. The state of Nevada has a population of more than two million. Nevada state prisons house over 12,000 inmates. The main purpose of CURE and the Recovery group is to ensure prisons are used for those individuals who belong in prison and to provide available resources to those in prison who want to turn their lives around. CURE currently has 20,000 members. Ã¢â¬Å"Current issues addressed are abolishment of the death penalty, adequate access to legal assistance, effective drug treatment and a constitutional amendment that changes the American justice systemÃ¢â¬ (Nevada-Cure, 2011, p. 1). Members of the CURE group and the Recovery group are currently appearing in the state legislature to speak on such issues as WIC for pregnant women prisoners, an increase in educational programs in prisons, and requiring juvenile justice receiving state funds to file an annual report on the number of juvenile deaths and the circumstances relating to the death of the juvenile (Nevada-Cure, 2011). AdrienneÃ¢â¬â¢s Perspective. AdrienneÃ¢â¬â¢s husband has been asked to be a part of a committee in the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s legislature that addresses the issues and concerns of the CURE and Recovery group. She believes that many prisoners have the desire to change their lives; however, many programs are no longer available to the prisoners housed in the state of NevadaÃ¢â¬â¢s prisons. A meeting was set up with the Director of Prisons in January to discuss the issues currently addressed in the state legislature. Adrienne realizes the state has limited resources and funding available. She would propose that these two organizations raise money through donations and federal grants. Individuals who do not have the time to advocate for the cause and believe in this cause can donate money to these organizations to fight for the cause. Adrienne and her husband along with other individuals advocate for this cause by being the voice inside the state legislature. Although Adrienne does believe many individuals will never change their lives, she does believe that those whom want to must have the opportunity and resources available to succeed. References Nevada-Cure.org. (2011) Nevada-Cure: Citizens United for the Rehabilitation of Errants. Retrieved January 15, 2012 from http://www.nevadacure.org/
Saturday, September 14, 2019
The Nat Turner rebellion caused a great uproar in Virginia. The aftermath of the movement actually moved some in Virginia to push the ideas of gradual emancipation. With the intensity of the slavery issue at the time, this rebellion had the effect of causing a chain reaction in the Virginian society. The initial reaction of the white population after the rebellion is rather complicated. One thing to note is the power of rumors and their destructive influence. People in Virginia started going crazy, as these rumors incited mass hysteria. Whites in Virginia mobilized towards Southampton county, numbering roughly three thousand units. With an overall sense of panic, and increasingly terrorizing rumors, it is no wonder that there were so many atrocities done to the black population. Militia came into the area with preconceived ideas as to the extent of the rebellion, and with it they just started killing random blacks. In a hypocritical way, whites mutilated the bodies of their victims. Whites decapitated approximately fifteen supposed rebels in Murfreesboro with the heads placed on poles for everyone to see. What could cause people to see this as a good idea? It is fascinating that the incoming militia had the capacity to mirror the crimes that they were there to prevent. In the very area in which Nat TurnerÃ¢â¬â¢s rebels murdered the Vaughn family, the head of a murdered black man was put on display. This reaction shows the deep hatred that some white men had for slaves. This aimless killing obviously could not continue for long, as peoples started to realize that their property was being destroyed. Monetary compensation was only given if a slave was executed under the law. Since slavers were a key economic asset, it was only appropriate that the suspected rebels should be tried in a court. With the death sentence being issued by a judge, the slave owner could be compensated, and the blood lust could be sated. Shifting toward a more appropriate action, the death sentence was typically more humane that the random murders seen initially. Reaction on the side of the law was obviously very hostile, since every judge was white and very much emotionally compromised on the situation. With the racial opinions and dehumanization of blacks, this court wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be the fairest, but it was better than previous actions taken on the black community. The judges expedited the hearings of suspected rebels, allowing little time for them to build a proper defense. As there was a great deal of prejudice towards them before the Nat Turner rebellion, black men faced aÃ considerable amount of abhorrence in the aftermath of the revolt. Not only did the free blacks feel so much pressure that many of them fled the area, but some even chose to go assist in the colonization of Liberia. One important thing to note is that Virginia even took away the right of blacks, slave and free, to preach or conduct religious meetings. This is interesting with the knowledge that this country was founded upon religious freedom. In the mind of slave holders, slavery needed tighter controls. Pent up emotions concerning the abolition movements likely caused some of the more extreme reactions to the Nat Turner rebellion. The fear of losing their property and way of life was a battle that the South had been fighting since the country was founded. Their livelihood depended on the protection of slavery. Publications like David WalkerÃ¢â¬â¢s Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World, likely caused quite a stir in the Southern population. In the mind of Governor Floyd, these abolitionists and black preachers were the main culprits behind the Nat Turner rebellion. In reading the document encompassing Nat TurnerÃ¢â¬â¢s confession, there are some problems when analyzing the text. What has been left out is unknown. In a joint effort between Thomas Gray and Nat Turner, the confession was made to give at least some account of the rebellion. Both men likely hated each other, which would cause some communication issues during the interview. While Turner was the voice behind the confession, Gray was ultimately the one that structured it. Most of the article is the synopsis of events that occurred in TurnerÃ¢â¬â¢s life, which appear to be his own voice. Throughout the document, Gray interjects his opinions, especially in denouncing TurnerÃ¢â¬â¢s acts of violence. When Turner addresses his supposed ministry, Gray seems to be fill with loathing concerning Turner. Though he recognizes the vast intellect of Turner, Gray also describes Turner in a manner that shows an overall disposition of enmity.
Friday, September 13, 2019
The challenge of accommodation for Students at the University of Kent - Essay Example Currently, the University of Kent, Canterbury Campus houses only 5,000 students within its accommodation facilities, which comprises of flats, houses or college rooms (University of Kent, 2013:n.p.). The Campus offers the accommodation facilities either on a self-catered or part-catered basis, meaning that the students have to cater for some of their essential living requirements, even when accommodated within the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s accommodation facilities (University of Kent, 2013:n.p.). The other major challenge associated with the accommodation at this Campus is that; even where the accommodation can be provided, especially for students with disabilities, they are required to meet the costs of carers (University of Kent, 2013:n.p.). The student population data of University of Kent, Canterbury Campus indicates that by 2013, the Campus had a total student population of 19,275, comprising of 17,248 full-time students, with an additional population of approximately 2,027 part-time students, and an additional resident research staff of 600 (University of Kent, 2013:n.p.). The University of Kent describes itself as UK's European university, considering that it comprises of a combination of both local and international students (The Guardian, 2013:n.p.). The international student population within University of Kent is substantial, with the foreign student population comprising of 15.5% the total UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s population, who are recruited from across 145 countries globally (University of Kent, 2013:n.p.).
Thursday, September 12, 2019
Human Nature & Sexuality - Essay Example Even though the author clearly stated the differences between the sexuality and reproduction of female animals and human beings in the sense that the human sexuality is free from hormonal dictation4 which is contrary to the case of female animals, discussing the female sexuality and reproduction of the different animal species such as rhesus monkeys, baboons, rats and chimpanzees among others in the book could cause some of the readers to initially think that the author is trying to stress or point out some similarity between the animals and humans by trying to make a comparison between the case of the female animals and human beings in terms of their physical, For instance, the author included in her example that female monkeys are also capable of mounting other monkeys in order for these monkeys to experience orgasm by getting enough stimulation from the other monkeys without the need for copulation.5 Similar to these monkeys, men and women are able to experience sexual orgasm by simply stimulating their genitalia (penis and clitoris) without going through any sexual intercourse.6 Although the author did not directly mention the similar acts of humans with the animalsÃ¢â¬â¢ sexual behaviour, providing these two examples in her writings is nonverbally suggesting that there is in fact a similarity between the two by nature. The fact that the author discussed some observational explanation on the sexual behaviour of these animals makes the validity of her statement questionable considering the fact that human beings would not accurately know whether or not the female animals are indeed experiencing orgasm such as in the case of some women who tries to fake their orgasm in order to please their husbands or mate.
Wednesday, September 11, 2019
Evaluation of producer strategies (Spartan Energy Corp) - Assignment Example During 2014 second quarter, the company average production stood at 6,396 boe/d which consisted of 93% oil and liquids. The production costs reduced to $ 18.23 per boe while the administrative expenses reduced to $3.11 per boe. During the same period, the company attained $24.4 million as funds from operations. During the first six months that ended in June 30, 2014, Spartan net income stood at $16,357 million. As a company that takes into consideration the interest of the stakeholders, Spartan Energy Corp has adopted the culture of using modern technology in its production facilities. For example, through the use of 3-D seismic coverage, the company is in a position to identify areas with oil and other minerals. Additionally, the company has invested in modern drilling equipments that make it to improve its operations. Through the extensive research and innovation by the company, it is targeting to achieve 15,000 boe/d in the next 24 months. As a company that deals with oil, Spartan is exposed to various risks. For example, wet weather in southeast Saskatchewan has negatively affected drilling process in that region. As a result, the company has experienced delays in drilling. To deal with the risk of weather, the company first stops to drill in such areas until it is deemed fit to drill again. In addition, the company has established wells in more areas so as to ensure its operations are not affected once wet weather is experienced in some regions. Spartan Energy Corp is concerned with various government policies. For instance, the company provides audited financial statements to its shareholders. In addition, the company has a culture of conserving the environment during its activities. In this way, it acts in line with the government environmental conservation laws. The company adopts a whistle blowing policy that ensures that accounting frauds are detected as outlined
Tuesday, September 10, 2019
Corporate governenance - Essay Example lowed by series of consequences in the capital markets including managerial, and accounting corruption or weakness of the internal control systems panel on activities of the financial institutions. Based on the above the global economy has witnessed the introduction of new terminology namely Corporate Governance to detect the weakness in the companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ control. The concept of the Corporate Governance has been developed to direct the management and business inside and outside the company. The Corporate Governance function enables the company to ensure the existence of efficient systems, sets out responsibilities and duties of the board of directorsÃ¢â¬â¢ members and the executive management of the company, considering that interest of the shareholders irrespective of their shareholding and the interests of the different stakeholders in the company should be protected (Menon and Joanne1997, p 564). The responsibility of the Corporate Governance is maintaining interest such genuine management of resources and engaging in environmental awareness of the shareholders and achieve fairness among them, strengthening the role of disclosure and transparency, and reiterate role of the management. The laws and regulatory policies of the business in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia have not given considerable attention to the concept of the Corporate Governance, except after the crisis of the Saudi Stock Exchange which took place in the second half of the year 2006 particularly 1/7/2006. In light of the flourished Saudi economy due to oil price soaring and availability of the cash along with the loans borrowing from the banks, individuals began to speculate in shares through availing loans from the banks and not from their own savings. Lack of transparencies in the market, misleading rumors, weakness of control from the Capital Market Authority and management of companyÃ¢â¬â¢s speculations on the poor companies in terms of the financial position have increased (Ian and William 2005,
Monday, September 9, 2019
Did women have a Renaissance - Term Paper Example It is also pertinent to note that the female gender saw an increase in educational opportunities during the renaissance. Though, this was actually slight when compared to the opportunities that came the way of men during this period, but the fact remains that the women saw an improvement in the educational opportunities that came their way during the renaissance especially the women in the upper class. The renaissance was a period when the world had more women from rich families attending private lessons at home or schools of the royal court. However, there was a limitation in this regard as the women were only made to study subjects that are suited for them. Subjects such as: art, dancing, music, needlework, and poetry were the ones that people felt should be studied by women. According to Matthews & Platt, Ã¢â¬Å"Work was increasingly divided according to gender, with women being assigned domestic duties and subordinated and restricted within the economic, social, legal, and cultur al system.Ã¢â¬ (120). Hence, women had restrictions in the area of education during the renaissance. It could then be right to argue that women did not have a total renaissance, but a partial one. The middle and lower class women were not given the kind of privilege that was given to the upper-class women as they limited them, especially the rural peasants to training in household duties such as sewing and cooking. However, there are several women that had the kind of privileges that was given to men and one of them is Isabella d'Este. She was born in 1474 and died in 1539. Isabella was an assiduous woman and a highly intelligent diplomat. Isabella received male education and she collected works of art from foremost artists of the century she lived through. The case of Isabella is just one out of several thousands of women. The fact that Isabella Este rose to the heights that was deemed impossible for women to reach does not necessarily mean that women really had a significant re naissance, but it could be argued that some women showed that what men can do, women can even do far better. The educational status that was attained by Isabella could only be attained by women that were given the kind of educational opportunity that Isabella had. It should also be noted that the education that women received were dominated by the males, hence they could only learn the things that the males allowed them to learn. Hence, women still played second fiddle to their male counterparts in the area of education (Cairns). There were also well-grounded female scholars that were writing during the period of the Renaissance. Women began to participate freely during the Renaissance as this period saw an increase in the number of female artists, musicians and poets. Though, the period of Renaissance saw more women entering the intellectual life, but they did play any significant role when compared to the roles that the men played during this period. Some women actually proved to their male counterparts that they were capable of holding political powers during the Renaissance period. One of them was Queen Elizabeth I of England. The manner at which Queen Elizabeth ruled her kingdom showed that women were ready to take over key leadership roles from their male counterparts. The impact made by Elizabeth as a woman did not really change the
Sunday, September 8, 2019
Topic 2 Eco - Essay Example This notwithstanding, another concern that continues to be raised by experts in the field has to do with the cost associated with the use of these tools, where there continues to be debate as to whether or not these state-of-the-art screening and diagnostic tools would not lead to an increase in the rate of growth of healthcare expenditure. Taking a stand on the issue, it would be said that there are two broad financial impacts of the current situation on the rate of growth of healthcare expenditure. These are short term impact and long term impact. Short term impact of the use of state-of-the-art screening and diagnostic tools refers to the financial outcomes of using these tools from the time the spending is made to the next financial seasons when financial season when budgets are prepared. What is noted is that most health facilities purchase these tools not as part of their daily consumables but as lifetime purchases. This means that when they buy them once, they hardly buy them again in a very long time. The prices of these tools are however very high. In the short term when the health facilities would have to made huge financial allocations to make purchases, it can be said that the impact on expenditure will be massive in terms of growth. This is because the current healthcare budget is already plagued with very high demand from the need to achieving quality healthcare delivery (Henderson, 2012). Greater parts of the budgets of health facilities have tried to focus on human resource development in the past and even thoug h this form of spending has not ceased, there has been this new form of spending. The other form of impact is the long term effect of this form of spending, which looks at the results that the screening and diagnostic tools will have on healthcare delivery after about a year of their usage. From this context, it can be said that the usage of these tools promotes quality healthcare delivery, greater part of which focuses on
Saturday, September 7, 2019
Business Proposal - Assignment Example This business proposal concerns the introduction of a new private health insurance scheme in the country which will cater to the varying needs of the low to middle income group residents of the United States of America. An oligopolistic market is a market structure in which a handful of firms compete and overshadow. The insurance market in the United States of America is a highly competitive market. As per the principles of Economics, when a market sector is communicably connected between few dominating firms, then it becomes a highly competitive market. In an oligopolistic market, although a few companies dominate, there remains a possibility of a number of small companies operating in the same market. For example, in the health care insurance market of the United States of America, there are multinational companies like Blue Cross organizations, Etna and Kaiser who are the main players in the sector. However, in addition to this, there is also some small scale independent health care insurance coverage provided as a part of creating a support system for the low income groups of people. Also, there are small private insurance companies which provide specialty insurance services for disabled and ne edy people (Economics Online Ltd, 2014). This business proposal is focused on the emerging and existing demands in the market related to health insurance coverage. Also, the factor of the significance of health insurance coverage for the consumers and the manner in which premiums and coverage for these plans change in order to adapt to the external competitive environment are taken into consideration in the selected business proposal. A necessity of examining the results of certain quality metrics related to demands in the health care insurance market has been identified in the insurance market of the United States. The