Thursday, December 26, 2019

Film Review Bhaji on the Beach - 1614 Words

Film Review: Bhaji on the Beach Introduction Bhaji is an Indian snack food whose identity has been Westernized in the British Isles. Director Gurinder Chadha has chosen bhaji as a metaphor for the lives of the women in this, her first feature film. Although Indian by birth, the characters, especially those of the younger generation, has been in large part, shaped by the culture of England, the country in which they live. Bhaji on the Beach not only examines this cross-cultural conflict, but also investigates in sexism and the generation gap, as well. Bhaji on the Beach is Gurinder Chadha’s first screenplay and is a stunning debut. This is a stark examination of some of the failings of contemporary Asian culture, but very much from the insiders point of view. This is not patronizing; this is true. Bhaji on the Beach is an energetic, race-and-sex-relations comedy that is a must see for anyone who thinks that putting these issues-of-the-epoch in the mass media is a nic e way to deal with the traumas plaguing South Asian women. Community-orientated films are a superb way to dramatize, confront, and to come to terms with interracial sex and pregnancies, and other configurations that are a source of endless trouble for South Asian parents who just cant forget India, Pakistan etc. The Cast primarily is consisted of Ginder (Kim Vithana), a young mother who is seeking a divorce from an abusive husband (Jimmi Harkishin), Hasida (Sarita Khajuria) is a pre-medShow MoreRelatedBhaji on the Beach Film Review1080 Words   |  4 PagesBhaji on the Beach is an entertaining film about the culture clash between different generations of women within an East Indian community in England. It takes place in the early 1990’s in a time that feminist values are being introduced to the community. This movie is written and directed by Gurinder Chadha, who is known for witty films that deal with deeper ideas about culture clash. In Bhaji on the Beach, nine w omen take a trip to Blackpool, England to see a festival of lights. They are taking

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Love and Marriage in Renaissance Literature - 1228 Words

In medieval Europe, the troubadours (poets of the southern part of France), like Guilhem IX, or Cercamon, first began to write poems about humble men falling in love with women who were admirer and adored by their lovers. Furthermore, intense love between men and women became a central subject in European literature, like between Tristan and Iseult, Lancelot and Guinevere, or Aeneas and Dido. But it was not question of marriage. Actually, marriage and love did not match very well together but then Renaissance literature developed the concepts of love and marriage and recorded the evolution of the relation between them. In the Renaissance poetry, Donne, in The Good Morrow, celebrate love and sexuality in marriage. However, the aspects of†¦show more content†¦In Shakespeare s play entitled A Midsummer Nights Dream, in the couples, the mates were chosen on their own will. Theseus, at the beginning of the play, is talking with his wife, Hippolyta, about their upcoming marriage. He so, demonstrates that the marriage was not a forced duty but that he wants it and even Hippolyta shows her happiness to marry him. Shakespeare went against societal norms and showed love as the only desire of a couple. And this began his central and favourite theme: the lovers who cannot be together because that goes against their families will. Besides, the societal norms of the marriage were quite strict in regard to the church. Indeed, before a couple could officially be considered married by the church and common law, there were four basic requirements. First, the bride s family had to consent and a dowry had to be offered. Second, both parties had to be of equal social class. The third requirement was for the parties to publicly declare the wedding and to have witnesses. Finally, the couple had to consummate the marriage. In Shakespeare s Measure for Measure, Claudio and Juliet are, thus married by common law standards -- however, their marriage was secret and so, not consi dered as a legal marriage. Actually, it was very important that the marriage was witnessed. And in this play,Show MoreRelatedLove and Marriage in Renaissance Literature Essay973 Words   |  4 PagesLove and Marriage in Renaissance Literature In medieval Europe, the troubadours (poets of the southern part of France), like Guilhem IX, or Cercamon, first began to write poems about humble men falling in love with women who were admirer and adored by their lovers. Furthermore, intense love between men and women became a central subject in European literature, like between Tristan and Iseult, Lancelot and Guinevere, or Aeneas and Dido. But it was not question of marriageRead MoreThe Reflection of Life During the Renaissance in Literature1601 Words   |  7 PagesLife in the Renaissance has been greatly reflected through the literature of its time. Many authors from this time reflected life in the Renaissance through their works. Several authors who strongly demonstrated this reflection include William Shakespeare, Thomas Elyot, Christopher Marlowe, Walter Raleigh, and Christine de Pizan. They accomplished this by producing various literary works, such as Hamlet, â€Å"The Passionate Shepherd to His Love,† â€Å"The Nymph’s Reply to the Shepherd,† Le Livre de laRead MoreEssay on Attitudes Toward Love in French literature838 Words   |  4 PagesThroughout the centuries, literature has provided a way to express oneself, while at the same time, allowing the reader to experience a different kind of life through the stories. As a creation of humans, literature tends to reflect the ideals and though ts of its writer, while also providing a glimpse into the society, in which the writer penned the story. Perhaps one of the greatest and most intriguing human emotions is love and this theme is present in literature from its beginning to the presentRead MoreClass And Social Structures During The Medieval Period993 Words   |  4 PagesClass and social structures changed frequently throughout the medieval period, the renaissance, and the eighteenth century, and this change caused much anxiety in preserving the noble class. During the medieval period, the three classes were challenged by the emergence of the merchant class which rose to the same level as the nobles during the renaissance. Finally, in the eighteenth century, this noble class was pushed out of power and then returned, throwing the class into turmoil. These changesRead MoreHarlem Renaissance Essay1106 Words   |  5 PagesCollege in 1917 where she began her literary career. Hurston was closely associated with the Harle m Renaissance being one of the pre-eminent writers on the twentieth century in African American literature. Her famous novel â€Å"Their Eyes Were Watching God† was especially influential to the movement on racial equality at the time. Her Novel both reflects and departs from the ideas on the Harlem Renaissance in several ways. In order to understand the significance of Author Zora Neale Hurston’s novel â€Å"TheirRead More Comparing Love and Marriage in Canterbury Tales, Lanval, Faerie Queene, and Monsieurs Departure675 Words   |  3 PagesLove and Marriage in Canterbury Tales, Lanval, Faerie Queene, and Monsieurs Departure Medieval and Renaissance literature develops the concepts of love and marriage and records the evolution of the relation between them. In Chaucers Canterbury Tales, Christian love clashes with courtly love, as men and women grapple with such issues as which partner should rule in marriage, the proper, acceptable role of sex in marriage, and the importance of love as a basis for a successful marriage. WorksRead MoreThe Harlem Renaissance1317 Words   |  6 Pagesis the Harlem Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance is the cultural movement of the 1920’s. The movement essentially kindled a new black cultural identity through art, literature and intellect. The Harlem Renaissance started during the Roaring Twenties. It took place in Harlem, New York. It became most prominent in the mid to late 1920’s and it diminished toward the early 1930’s (Henderson). The Harlem Renaissance was initially called the New Negro Movement or the New Negro Renaissance. It was the resultRead MoreGender Equality During the Renaissance Essay1198 Words   |  5 PagesThe Renaissance was simply â€Å"the green end of one of civilizations hardest winters† (Robert 10). In other words, catastrophic events swept through Europe such as the black plague, warfare, and starvation causing a high population of death rates. After an era of destitution, the Renaissance was a period of â€Å"rebirth† where individuals could express their intellectual thought through art, science, literature, and education. It’s true that people during that time express humanist ideals of individualRead MoreThe Essay Of Groom Service And The Return 803 Wo rds   |  4 Pagesare two short story which have the common theme of â€Å"love† and the common situation of â€Å" the marriage†. Although the two stories have common themes and situation related to acceptance, acknowledgement, and recognition, the difference between the two story influence the meaning a lot. The common theme of story is â€Å"love†. The protagonist in â€Å"Groom Service†, Bernard, had the ability to survive with his hunting skill, but did not dare to seek his own love. He seeks acceptance from Marie and her family. OnRead MoreDifferences Of Shakespeare And Much Ado About Nothing By William Shakespeare1668 Words   |  7 PagesShakespeare is regarded as a very influential writer in British literature and has been an inspiration for literature beyond his time. This play has been recreated for the cinema in many versions of film. One version of film in particular is by the director Kenneth Branagh in 1993 (IMDb). Both the Much Ado About Nothing play and the Much Ado About Nothing film have differences, updates, and similarities that relates back to Renaissance time or to current 21st century culture. The original text that

Monday, December 9, 2019

Italy Terror free essay sample

How far was Mussolinis control of Italy in the years 192543 dependent on the use of terror? In the years 1 925 to 1943 Mussolini had control over Italy and to an extent t his control was dependent on the use of terror. However, it can be argued that it wasnt the o only factor and that it was his policies and governments appeal to the populace that got him genuine e support. But this support was maintained by his ability to crush opposition and prevent challenge GE.The threat and use Of force against the Italian populace played a role in maim initiating Mussolinis intro, preventing challenge and his ability to crush opposition. The death of Immediate in 1924 proved to the Italian people that Mussolini had no objection to the use of term or and violence, although Mussolini denies involvement theres evidence to suggest he did. By 1926 open opposition became increasingly more difficult due to a ban on political activity outside the e Fascist Party and by this time it was probable that Fa scist Squads murdered around 2000 opponent ants. We will write a custom essay sample on Italy Terror or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The terror went further, Mussolini used the secret police, the OVER, to spy on dissidents, which led to them being severely beaten up and imprisoned without trial. This would act as a warning to others not to oppose and without opposition Mussolinis control remained. AntiFascist opposition no longer had a platform for their views after the IM position of press censorship. Due to this, within Italy, opposition was sparse and disorganized. But some groups like the Communists who tried to maintain an underground party organization PU blushed their own newspaper, Limit , which distributed antifascist leaflets.However, it was constantly hounded by the regime and in 1 927 the founder of L Unit;, Grammas was imprisoned. This inclines to others that opposition will not be tolerated by the regime and ensures Mussolinis control . There were few individuals who openly criticized the regime and from time to time the OVER or the militia simply assaulted people which was thought to encourage cooperation, it was gauges sting that conformity was the safest option. Again, this shows the extent of Mussolinis use of terror and how he used it to maintain his control.Another use of terror was the setting up of concentration camps, which were on a lot smaller scale than that of Nazi concentration camps. They held fewer than 5000 prisoners, t he conditions were tough and some torture did occur but brutality was not systematic. Mussolini mainly used them for the punishment of those who oppose the regime. This suggests that Mussolini i did need terror to maintain his control as he had to keep opposition to a minimum to succeed. Despite the use of terror, it can be argued that Mussolinis economic policies were what maintained his control. Firstly, the regime claimed credit for increasing profits and tried to win over industrialists by appointing Alberta De Stefan as Treasury Minister which would help areas ere industrialists due to his traditional policy. However, by 1 925 Mussolini had dismissed De Stefan an d took less notice of business interests, meaning his support would be more dependent on his use of terror and he stopped caring about genuine support from the Italian people. At this time the e boom in which the fascist party rose in began to come to an end and the exchange rate of lira WA falling against other currencies.Mussolini found this unacceptable and so declared his battle for Ii RA. The revaluation of the lira should of helped the Italian consumer which would win him over there e support, however Mussolini prevented this by placing high tariffs on many foreign imports which h made him unpopular and therefore made him more dependent on the use of terror as his genuine support declined.

Monday, December 2, 2019

The film that I would like to ... free essay sample

The film that I would like to analyze is the Slumdog Millionaire, which is a 2008 British drama film, is directed by Danny Boyle. The screenplay is produced by Simon Beaufoy and the film stars are Dev Patel, Freida Pinto, Madhur Mittal, Anil Kapoor and Irrfan Khan. (Wikipedia, n. d.). This film tells a story about an Indian teenager, who was called Jamal Malik, came from a poor, slums area of India. One day, he participated a TV show which was Who wants to be a Millionaire and finally he won 20 million rupees. However, the host thought that Jamal was cheating as he was able to answer all questions correctly. Jamal recalled his memory in the childhood and he loved and had lost the girl called Latika. Therefore, this movie can bring certain themes such as poverty, love, cruel reality, prejudice and determination. Hence, I would like to explain how the narrative structure and editing can brings such themes of this film. We will write a custom essay sample on The film that I would like to or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page First, this film shows cruel reality of the Slumdog to the audience. This can be shown in a flashback narrative structure. For example, when Jamal was ready to answer the first few questions, he recalled his memory on childhood- his adventure in escaping the slums with his older brother, Salim after the Hindus attacked his home and killed his mother, which left Jamal an orphan. (New York essays, 2016). Therefore, this led to profound physical and mental effects on Jamal. This scene shows the cruel reality of the poor, especially children who have to face the pressure from the cruel reality and hence Jamal felt his destiny was very poor and unsatisfied. As a result, Jamal had to face cruel reality to grow up.Besides, the theme of this film is prejudice. Prejudice means an unreasonable attitude, opinion or feeling, regarding a social, racial, religious and ethnic group. (Prejudice, n.d.). In the beginning of the film, we can see that Jamal was caught by the police because Jamal was supposed to cheating on the game show Who wants to be a Millionaire. Then, police and he watched Who wants to be a Millionaire on television. The shot focus on television (point-of-view shot) in which Jamal introduced himself that his occupation was operator of XLS communication, the host of the game show and the audience teased him, said Jamal, you have a very high social status. Why do you join this competition? From the above scene, we can see that the host of Who wants to be a Millionaire stereotyped people who have low social status or the poverties. In addition, in the middle of the film, there was prejudice of the religion and gender. For example, before Jamal answering sixteen thousands rupees question, the narrator used flashback to recall his memory on the childhood some women and some men were washing clothes in the river, however, some men who believe in Islam. They were approaching to the women whose belief in Indian religion. Then, men fight the women. Jamal continued to run in order to avoid the Islam man from attacking. During the progress, Jamal had seen Indian God. Finally, after his flashback, he answered the question successfully. Therefore, in the several flashbacks, it shows the prejudice of religion, gender and social status.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Hyphens Are Chains Linking Phrasal Adjectives

Hyphens Are Chains Linking Phrasal Adjectives Hyphens Are Chains Linking Phrasal Adjectives Hyphens Are Chains Linking Phrasal Adjectives By Mark Nichol Writers frequently neglect to connect two words that together constitute a single grammatical unit modifying a noun that follows them. This error of omission is even more likely when the phrasal adjective consists of more than two words. The following sentences demonstrate such errors, and a discussion and a revision follow each example. 1. Leaders should be demanding reports that provide relevant stakeholders with near real time information. The phrase â€Å"near real time† consists of three terms that combined to describe a type of information, so the phrase should be linked with hyphens: â€Å"Leaders should be demanding reports that provide relevant stakeholders with near-real-time information.† 2. He found himself immersed in an in the trenches position. The position is in the trenches, so those last three words must be hyphenated when preceding the noun: â€Å"He found himself immersed in an in-the-trenches position.† 3. The student had a six-month long affair with his English teacher. Here, the phrasal adjective is incompletely hyphenated, leaving the reader with the impression that a long affair was of a six-month nature. But long is part of the phrasal adjective: â€Å"The student had a six-month-long affair with his English teacher.† 4. Police investigated the much talked about incident. When much precedes an adjective such as needed and the two words precede a noun, much is connected to the next word with a hyphen. The same rule applies when much intensifies an existing phrasal adjective such as â€Å"talked about†: â€Å"Police investigated the much-talked-about incident.† 5. Next, the firm undergoes a revenue recognition transition process. Here, the number of words in the phrasal adjective is the same as the number in each of the preceding examples, but the use of jargon makes the phrasing more dense. The sentence can be corrected to â€Å"Next, the firm undergoes a revenue-recognition-transition process,† but in this case, is better to relax the sentence by starting with the noun and progressing from there: â€Å"Next, the firm undergoes a process of transitioning revenue recognition.† (Take care, however, that the correct meaning of the terminology is preserved in the revision.) Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Punctuation category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:60 Synonyms for â€Å"Walk†The Parts of a WordSentence Adverbs

Saturday, November 23, 2019


Bespoke Bespoke Bespoke By Maeve Maddox A reader has asked for a discussion of the word bespoke: I keep reading it in articles, and at least half the time I see it I end up looking it up because it just doesn’t seem correct to me. Bespoke is an adjective that comes from the archaic English verb bespeak. One of the meanings of the prefix be- is â€Å"about.† When miserly Samuel Pepys dreads that a man wants him to be his son’s godfatheran honor that would require some outlay of cashhe says, [The man] who I feared did come to bespeak me to be godfather to his son. That is, â€Å"who he feared had come to speak to him about the prospect of his standing godfather.† In early usage bespeak could also mean â€Å"to speak out,† â€Å"to ask for,† â€Å"to tell about,† and â€Å"to predict,† as well as the meaning that has survived in the bespoke of the reader’s question: â€Å"to engage beforehand; to order goods.† Bespoke and bespoken are past forms of bespeak. For example, A new set of chains was bespoke. (A new set of chains was ordered.) She had arranged or bespoken to have him killed. (She had talked about a hit.) In its current use as an adjective, bespoke refers to custom-made goods in contrast to goods that are ready-made. The adjective can also refer to a person who provides such goods, (e.g., â€Å"a bespoke tailor†). In England the expression â€Å"bespoke suit† is a common way of referring to a tailor-made suit. In the context of conspicuous consumption, bespoke seems to have something to do with the desires of hedonists who don’t know what to do with their money. Watchmakers look to bespoke design to court the super-rich: We will offer a bespoke service where the customer has a say on everything: the material, the case, the dial, the hands, said Thierry Andretta, president of the firm where prices for custom-made watches start at 100,000 Swiss francs ($113,000). Gourmet dining, private flights, bespoke safaris, slimming clinics and art auctions emerging as top status symbols The Privileged World City: Private Banking, Wealth Management and the Bespoke Servicing of the Global Super-Rich American speakers of less extravagant means and tastes are more likely to refer to the things they special-order as â€Å"custom-made.† Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Expressions category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:75 Contronyms (Words with Contradictory Meanings)The Possessive ApostropheParticular vs. Specific

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Business Strategy for H&M in Brazil Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

Business Strategy for H&M in Brazil - Essay Example Hennes & Mauritz, hereafter H&M, is a well-known Swedish firm specializing in retailing and designing fashion apparels and accessories. The firm offers a variety of cosmetics, apparel, footwear, and accessories for children, teenagers, women, and men. The firm operates in Asia, Europe, and North America, having numerous outlets over 38 countries. The company employs over 87,000 people, with headquarters in Stockholm, Sweden. This paper presents a business strategy for H&M for the introduction of the clothing brand in Brazil, one of the rapidly emerging economies in the world (Doyle, Moore, and Morgan, 2006:275). The paper analyzes the company and clothing industry, market analysis, target group analysis, and entry strategy for the company into the Brazil, including the PEST and SWOT analysis. The paper concludes with a recommendation part for the company. Erling Persson established H&M in 1947 in Vasteras, Sweden. Over the years, the company has significantly growth in the clothing i ndustry, and currently operates in over 38 countries and an employee base of over 87,000 spread all over Europe, North America, and Asia. The central idea of H&M is to offer its clients a variety of fashionable products of good quality at an affordable price. One of the strategies of H&M is the continuous development of its collection such that each customer finds a new product o the next visit to the stores. In essence, the company uses over 100 buyer and pattern makers, and designers (Capell and Khermouch, 2002:107). Apart from the permanent designers, the company connects with other top-class designers in creating fashion campaigns, including reputable designers such as Madonna, Stella McCartney, and Karl Lagerfeld. Their collection includes children’s, teenagers’, women’s, and men’s apparel, cosmetic, footwear, and accessories. Moreover, the company has in recently developed a full interior design collection. Due to the nature of their products, the c ompany targets people at all ages and tastes, which has both its challenges and benefits (Chetty and Campbell-Hunt, 2004:62). Apart from the over 2200 stores spread across the world, the company also offers catalogue sales and internet shopping in Germany, Austria, Sweden, Finland, and Norway. One of the interesting aspects of H&M is that it outsources all its production (Larenaudie, 2004). The company boosts of over 700 independent suppliers, primarily situated in Europe and Asia with 16 production offices. However, their suppliers have their own subcontractors, thus the overall figure of manufacturer units sums up to 2700. In 2010, the company’s turnover was about 12 billion Euros. The company targets a 10-15 percent growth per year for all new stores. In this regard therefore, H&M plans to employ an additional 6000 or 7000 people (Capell and Khermouch, 2002:107). The head office in Stockholm houses the entire corporate management, as well as other departments including fin ance, expansion, advertising, communication, logistics, security, information technology, designing and buying, expansion, corporate social responsibility, and international relations. Nonetheless, the company’s corporate culture adapts to the conventional global corporation culture, treating the entire world as a single market. The company operates in different countries, but the operations and plans are essentially similar in all the stores. The company does not prefer any country from its market areas, but rather implements its business strategy similarly in all. The central idea here is to offer products to various segments, rather than marketing for one only (Dimitratos and Plakoyinnaki, 2003:191). This is common for companies like H&M that have resources to cover a broad market. Industry Analysis Analyzing the strong clothing imports and high expenditure on apparel items by Brazil, as well as the consumer preference for the latest fashion, it is evident that the country is a very attractive emerging

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Music and Mind Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Music and Mind - Essay Example The infographic laid out on two axes. The horizontal axis is representing the time of the chronological events that had occurred in one day and the vertical axis is portraying the content of the event in four categories. There are vertical bars placed in each time slot, which contains each contents icon in segments. Every segment is color coordinated according to the content of the event. All the icons placed in the vertical bar show a visual representation of the activity, location and nature of the event. The experience has indeed brought to light the extent to which I am exposed to music in different aspects of life. For instance, as I listened to gospel uplifting songs in the morning as I took a shower, checked my emails and took breakfast, the uplifting music inspired me to take the day on a positive note. However, I had a different experience at 11.30 am as I listened to a catchy song albeit I could not understand the lyrics. Although I was walking the dog at this time, I found interesting music can actually be a distraction as I tried to multitask between listening to music, walking the dog, and watching out for passing vehicles and people. A sad song at midday suddenly brought sad moods to me as the same song was played at my best friend’s funeral a few years back. It is important to note how brain can store good and bad memories and retain a strong association with music (Meyer, 2008). Between 12.30 and 1.00 pm, I did not experience any form of music. However, I noted that lack of music actually helped me concentrate on a magazine I was reading during this time. At 1.30 pm, I overheard music from a class as I passed by a learning institution. Although the music was not interesting, it reminded me of good old days when we would recite the alphabet using songs in kindergarten. At this point, I came to reckon that music can be used to enhance the brain to understand

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Tim Burton Analytical Essay Example for Free

Tim Burton Analytical Essay The dark lighting showed Edwards loneliness, however, the bright lighting of the town and Pegs house showed how he was able to create a relationship with the towns people, which he was unable to do previously in the tower. In Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Wonka did not have a good relationship with his father, so the flashbacks of his childhood are in a darker light. The dark lighting in Charlie and the Chocolate Factory and Edward Scissorhands stresses the importance of relationships. In accordance with dark lighting, Burton also uses contrasting sets exemplify the mportance of relationships. In Big Fish, when Edward Bloom unexpectedly arrives in Spectre for the first time, the town is green and lush with vegetation, and the townspeople are happy and worry free. While he was in Spectre, he promised a little girl he would return. However when he returned after many years, the town was barren and businesses were closed. This contrasting set shows he was not there for the town when they needed him; therefore the town was barren when he returned for the second time. In Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Wonka creates an amazing hocolate factory to substitute the happiness of having a good relationship with his father. Contrastingly, Charlies house may not be as extravagant as the factory, but Charlie has a loving family. The opposing sets between the factory and Charlies home shows the importance of relationships. In Big Fish and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, contrasting sets show the importance of relationships Moreover, the use of close ups exemplifies the importance of relationships. In Big Fish, when Edward Bloom is lying in the hospital bed, and Will Bloom, Edwards son, inished the story of his fathers fantasy death, there is a close up of Wills face. Will knows his father is going to die and that all of the tall tales that his father told were true. The close up shows that if Will had trusted his father, they would have a better relationship. In Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, whenever the conversation of parents began, Wonka would act uncomfortable. From afar the viewer does not see the sadness, but the close up shows the sadness in his eyes. Wonka is sad he does not have a good relationship with his father, therefore the close up shows that elationships are important. In Big Fish and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, the close ups of the characters show the importance of relationships. Burton has a passion for making movies, and he puts all of his effort into creating extravagant sets and costumes in his movies. As seen in Big Fish, Edward Scissorhands, and Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, Burton creates personal messages to convey his inner feelings. In these movies, Tim Burton utilizes dark lighting, contrasting sets, and close ups to epitomize the importance the importance of relationships.

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Mathematical Order in the Artwork of Leonardo Da Vinci Essay -- Art It

Mathematical Order in the Artwork of Leonardo Da Vinci A large portion of the Italian Renaissance was an obsession with finding order in everything in the universe. Its primary actors sought to show nature as orderly and fundamentally simple. Leonardo Da Vinci, the epitome of the Renaissance Man, was not the first to apply these ideas of geometric order and patterns to art, but he may be the most well known. Da Vinci used mathematical concepts like linear perspective, proportion and geometry in much of his artwork. Leonardo was born on April 15, 1452 in Vinci, a town 50 kilometers west of Florence in what is now Italy. The illegitimate son of a notary, he grew to become one of the most renowned and influential men in the fields of art, engineering, architecture, mathematics and natural science. The world was just awakening from the Dark Ages. Sigmund Freud once wrote, â€Å"He was like a man who awoke too early in the darkness, while others were still asleep† (Brizio, 7). Much of his work was lost because of the time period he lived in. The primary artifacts of his work remaining today are the many paintings he did and the numerous notebooks filled with detailed diagrams of everything from human anatomy to theoretical inventions. They are filled with detailed descriptions and explanations scribbled right to left so only those intelligent enough could read them. Leonardo did intensive studies on linear perspective. He applied this method to much of his work. According to the Thames and Hudson Dictionary of Art Terms, linear perspective is â€Å"the method of representing a 3-D object or a particular volume of space on a flat surface.† By making all of the lines in the painting converge on an single, invisible point on the horizon,... ...tic of the Italian Renaissance, is sometimes criticized. But he created harmony and balance in such a unique and beautiful way that his work is still studied 500 years later. Bibliography [1] Brizio, Anna Maria, The Painter. Leonardo: The Artist, McGraw-Hill Co., 1980. [2] Emmer, Michele, Art and Mathematics: The Plutonic Solids. The Visual Mind: Art and Mathematics, MIT Press, 1993 [3] Pioch, Nicholas, Web Museum, Paris.: Leonardo Da Vinci. (9/20/99). [4] Rosstad, Anna, (translated by Ann Zwick), Leonardo Da Vinci: The Man and the Mystery. Ostlands – Postens Boktrykkeri, 1994. [5] Turner, Richard A., Inventing Leonardo. Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1992. [6] Zwijnenberg, Robert, The Writings and Drawings of Leonardo Da Vinci: Order and Chaos in Early Modern Thought. Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Organizational Structure Defined By Managers Commerce Essay

Organizational Structure may be defined as how directors and supervisors divide, group, and organize work between different employees and sections. Other important definition may be defined as: â€Å" An Organizational Structure is based on activities such as undertaking allotment, coordination, and supervising, which are directed towards the accomplishment and fulfilment of organisational ends and aims † An organisation can be structured in many different ways, depending on their aims, purposes and longterm ends. The construction of an organisation will find the manners in which it operates and performs. Many Organizations have a Hierarchy, but non all. Organizational Structure has 6 chief elements:1. WORK Specialization:Work Specialization is the grade to which organisational undertakings are sub-divided into single occupations. It is besides known as â€Å" Division of labour † . It is the specialisation of labour in specific, limited undertakings and like functions. It is a critical component of Job Structure and attributes a major function in success, if it is truly utilised. Wor Specialization is more efficient and effectual for directors, in order to carry through organisational positions. Directors find it much easier to happen gifted forces and develop them to execute specific and certain undertakings. As Repetition improves the ability of an single to execute a certain undertaking with lesser clip consumed. Basically, the occupations are assigned to specialise personal or persons. Therefore, the persons perform those undertakings or carry through those aims in which they are specialized or are trained to roll up. The kernel of Work Specialization is that an full occupation being done by an person, it is broken down into figure of stairss, with each measure being completed by a separate person. Therefore, single perform their expertness in specialised undertaking instead than the full occupation. It can be elaborated with the undermentioned illustration. FOR EXAMPLE ; In Formula 1 Motorsports Racing, Rushing squads Managers hire mechanics that are specialized in certain undertakings ( during Pit Stops ) . Some are adept in replacing Front tyres, others are adept in replacing Rear tyres. Similarly, some are adept in Raising Car from the back side and others are specialized to execute the duty of a â€Å" Lolly-Pop Man † . Therefore, these squads hire mechanics and delegate them occupations that, they are specialized to execute.2. DEPARTMENTALIZATION:Departmentalization is the 2nd component of Organizational Structure and follows Work Specialization. Departmentalization is the manner, work and duties are distributed in amongst different sections. Departmentalization refers to the procedure of grouping activities into sections. â€Å" Division of labour † creates specializers who need coordination. This coordination is facilitated by grouping specializers together in sections. Departmentalization has the following chief types:DEPARTMENTALIZATION BY FUNCTIONS:In Function Departmentalization, Departments are formed to group activities by â€Å" map † . Such as in a concern house, the construction might hold a Gross saless Department, a Marketing Department, a Purchase Department and a Human Resource Department etc. All these Departments are different from eachother on the footing of maps, they perform and the duties. Due to similar accomplishments and cognition, â€Å" Economies of Scale † can be achieved. The chief advantage of this type of Departmentalization is that, it can be used in all organisations, with mention to their ends and aims, and it is more efficient and effectual, as the people who posses the same expertness and accomplishments, are governed in a remarkable section.DEPARTMENTALIZATION BY PRODUCTS:Activities that are grouped by similar â€Å" Product Lines or Product Categories † . Undertakings are grouped harmonizing to merchandises and services, therefore go forthing all activities related to the merchandise or the service under a individual director or a remarkable caput. Each major merchandise country in the corporation is under the authorization of a senior director who is specializer in, and is responsible for, everything related to the merchandise line. This departmentalization helps an organisation to recognize its strong merchandise lines and weak links, additions Accountability. For E.g ; Unilever has different merchandise lines such as Dove, Axe and Fair & A ; Lovely etc.DEPARTMENTALIZATION BY GEOGRAPHY:Departments are formed on the footing of â€Å" Geography and Territory † ; such as North, South, East and West etc. If an organisation ‘s clients are geographically dispersed, it can group occupations based on geographics. For illustration, Coca Cola has developed a Organizational Structure administering districts, the North American sector and the International sector, whic h includes the Pacific Rim, the European Community, Northeast Europe, Africa and Latin America groups. COCA COLA GEOGRAPHICAL STRUCTUREDEPARTMENTALIZATION BY Procedure:Grouping activities on the footing of â€Å" Product or service or client flow † . Each procedure require different accomplishments and techniques at different phases of its production or readying. Therefore, this Departmentalization helps the organisation to use the expertness of persons at different phases of production. Therefore, sections are followed due to the difference in defined construction. For E.g ; A whole procedure is to be followed for obtaining a Passport, Verification, Documents Submission etc, all from different sections.DEPARTMENTALIZATION BY CUSTOMER:Grouping activities on the footing of â€Å" common clients or types of clients † Jobs may be grouped harmonizing to the type of client served by the organisation. The premise is that clients in each section have a common set of jobs and demands that can outdo be met by specializers. For e.g ; Law Firms provide services to General Public, high profile persons and Large Corporations.3. CHAIN OF COMMAND:Chain of Command is an unbroken line of Authority that extends from the top degree executive, direction to the lowest station, echeleon and clarifies who reports to whom. It is a Hierarchy which shows the Chain of Command and authorization, making a nexus between the Managers and Sub-ordinates. It has 2 chief elements: Authority ( It may be defined as the right of the directors and top degree executives to give orders to sub-ordinates. To ease Co-ordination, each director has a certain function to play in hierarchy and has a certain authorization over his colleagues and sub-ordinates to carry through his responsibilty ) Integrity of Command ( It preserves the unbroken line in the hierarchy. It states that, for the interest of better co-ordination, an person or a group must merely hold a individual higher-up, to whom coverage is done. It helps to take struggles and work confusion ) For E.g ; Ohio Fire Department is under the control of Ohio Government. Chain of Command goes right from the top degree Mayor, to the lower degree of directions such as Supervision Divison Chief and Staff Division Chief.4. SPAN OF CONTROL:Span of Control is besides an of import component of Organizational Structure. It fundamentally manipulates the capableness of a director to command a certain figure of employees. This figure is determined after analysing the size of the organisation. There are two type of spans, 1. Wider Spans 2. Narrow Spans. If a director decides to keep a narrow span, he can keep close control. However, there are few drawbacks every bit good. First, they are expensive due to extra degree of direction. Second, Communication procedure between the top and lower direction becomes more complex. Finally, Due to contract but tight supervising, Managers tend to do strong and tight policies, ordinances, which consequences in detering Employee Autonomy and Satisfaction. In recent old ages, the accent has been laid on keeping a wider span of control. It is easier to keep control, easier to pass on with sub ordinates and more significantly, policies are in the favour of Employees liberty, due to all right supervising. NARROW SPAN OF CONTROL5. Centralization AND Decentralization:Centralization is defined as â€Å" the grade to which determination devising is concentrated at a individual point in the organisation † . An Organization, in which there is less input taken from the lower degree directors and employees, and the top degree direction rely and take cardinal determinations by themselves, non affecting the lower direction ‘s input. Hence, it is â€Å" Centralization † . For e.g ; a Centralized Government is a signifier of Centralization, as it takes lesser input from lower governments and has the liberty to do determinations. Decentralization possibly defined as â€Å" the procedure of scattering decision-making administration closer to the people and citizens † . In Decentralization, the lower degree forces provide more input and take part in the determination devising. Decentralization and centralisation have played major functions in the history of many societies. An first-class illustration is the gradual political and organisational alterations that have occurred in European history. During the rise and autumn of the Roman Empire, Europe went through major centralisation and decentalisation. Although the leaders of the Roman Empire created a European substructure, the autumn of the Empire left Europe without a strong political system or military protection. Viking and other barbaric onslaughts further led rich Romans to construct up their big estates, in a manner that would protect their households and make a self-sufficing life topographic point. This system was greatly â€Å" decentralized † , as the Godheads of the manor had power to support and command the little agricultural environment that was their manor.6. Formalization:â€Å" The grade to which occupations within the organisation are standardized † Standardization is the certainty of the occupation. If a occupation is standardized, the employees know what to make and there is no kind of confusion. If a occupation is extremely standardized, there is minimal sum of discretion over what is to be done, when it is to be done and how it is to be done. It consequences in consistent and improved public presentation. The grade of formalisation depends on the organisation, its policies and its construction. For case, there a few occupations that are non formalized i.e Departmental Stores Clerk, Gas Station workers etc. On the other manus, companies like P & A ; G and Unilever normally have a standardised manner of making occupation. It is easy for employees to settle in, as they are able to understand their occupation decently.

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Geddes Garden City Essay

Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The American Political Economist who authored   the best read book titled Progress and Poverty (Lause) defined urbanization as â€Å"This life of great cities is not the natural life of man.   He must, under such conditions, deteriorate, physically, mentally, and morally â€Å".   To consider his point, the author view that life must be maintained in a serene atmosphere and not in a busy city just like those old good days that red beans or the cocoa is enough to send every household child to a good school.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Henry George began musing on this concept when the new railroad transport was developed in California that made an influence on high land values and influx of ordinary people to city life.   That development in one place brought about overcrowding and had wayward implications on the sustainability of the natural environment.   However, his idea provided economic reforms that made improvements of the life of the working classes possible.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Cities are indications of developments and of the visible civilizations of the history of man.   It takes a process of transformation that is unique and at the same time diverse.   This work is aimed at explaining the town concepts during the period of industrialization from the beginning of mass transportation and birth of new cities in particular on how Geddes observed and analyze these processes. Sustainability of the Man-built Environment   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It was concluded by Henry George that the man-built environment is something that will not last. However, Patrick Geddes the Leonardo da Vinci of the 20th century teaches and reaffirms that our world environment could be sustained provided that man cooperates in the process.   It has to be sustained in order that the life cycle of the young generation’s continues.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   His statement is not a contradiction to George’s philosophy but a possible solution to man’s current problems.   His reaffirmation brought to the world a new hope that even though life cycle is limited, this world is still something worthy to be cared for and it can endure. The positive attitude of George influences not only his neighbors but the human settlement at large during his time to the present.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are issues on industrialization which brings wealth but at the same time destroys the natural environment caused by pollutants. For this reason, Geddes made it clear that man do not live by the jingling of his coins.   There is always a chain effect if one resource is used in accordingly.   He provided a solution written in the Evergreen book that a sustainable world is as simple as making it comfortably green.   His conviction reminded even planners that if developments are unchecked it would create more disaster than improvements.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Globally, everyone breathe the same air that a poor or a developed nation breathes.   The current concern do not deals alone with affordability but also sustainability. With the pressing trend of modernization, comfortable living is expensive and value for money is usually a rare find. The problem of overcrowding in the cities and the lack of economic growth in the rural areas still remains to be a problem on poorly planned cities.   The increase of deteriorating cities will lead to the decline of the global sustainability.   The idea here is to provide developmental options that are definitely relevant to every cities of the world. His mottos â€Å"by creating we think and by living we learn was made to good use by educating people about their environment (Grewar).† The new housing design for workers, organizing his neighbors to renovate houses and build gardens made an indelible mark in his works which can still be seen in every postcard of the city’s Royal Mile that even Albert Einstein admired and has honored him (Grewar). The Garden City Movement Patrick Geddes three dimensional thinking (geography, economics and anthropology) places social sciences above math and logic, biology, chemistry and physics.   His belief that† the earth as a cooperative planet must teach people on how to treat properly their environment and is aimed specifically on educating children, improving the physical quality of life through biological knowledge by producing better medicines, and understanding human influence on ecology (Killiecrankie).† Geddes bridging social sciences with biology even influenced his biographer Lewis Mumford on the simple idea that man just like plants and animals thrived in healthy conditions which are expressed in one of the extracts of Geddes writings; â€Å"The world is mainly vast leaf-colony, growing on and forming a leafy soil, not a mere mineral mass, and we live not by the jingling of our coins, but by the fullness of our harvest. This is green world, with animals comparatively small, and all independent upon leaves.   By leaves we live (Grewar).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mumford an architectural critic and is particularly noted for his study on urbanization of the environment regarded technology as the destroyer of environment even if he qualifies that electricity could lead to the improvements of the social spheres (University).   His works are indications that technology must be regulated. During the late 18th century Garden Cities began to evolve through the works of city and town planners particularly the works of Ebenezer Howard in UK influenced by the philosophy of Geddes new approach in urban planning called the garden city movement.   Howard began to build self-sustaining towns that combines convenience and industries located on agricultural sites (â€Å"Sir Ebenezer Howard†).† Howard realizes that no matter from what nation a man belongs, there is but one social issue which is difficult to solve and that is problems on housing and labor. This propelled many to advocate the new movement and increases the awareness on the concept of â€Å"decency of surroundings† and that includes, ample spaces, clean housing with gardens, and preservation of landscapes (Letchworth). The First Garden City   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Letchworth City is founded by Howard and is the first garden city of the world; in 1905 the garden city movement became involved in the exhibits of new housing called the workers cottage or housing for the working class in which some of it still stood today. Those cheap but strong and functional residences can be affordable to workers.   Some of these cottages made of wood or concrete can still be found in Letchworth streets and is now being conserved.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Some of the prototype housing called the workers cottages influences the human settlement design of this century.   This new housing designed sprawled even to the west for instance the workers cottages of Architect Maybeck of California and to the whole world at least giving man an accommodation that he humanly deserves. Mass Transportation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fast developments are due to improved transportation and communications.   The streets affect the life of all its inhabitants and this vision is very much encouraged in order to serve a huge population.   This is indeed very necessary but at the same time may lead to a city decline.   This entails thorough planning on how to maintain a good life in a cellular metropolis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Victor Gruen a planning practitioner, mentioned in his last publicized works that â€Å"auto sprawl would cripple the global ecosystem and brings about physical and psychological starvation of the urbanized man (Hill).†Ã‚   Today, some cities plants a good number of trees for every parking slots or spaces created.   Planning theories must be integrated to transit that is useful to automobile cities and providing more mass transit and more freeways.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Automobile cities, needs more spaces unlike the old horse tracks during the colonial times.   Human settlement today cannot tolerate a waste of space in places where living condition is dense.   Somehow, these dense spaces are capable of providing the maximum comfort for man by means of mechanical equipments in buildings. In this cities life is fast and expensive.   Technology is a provision for man’s comfort and not a means to enslave but more often than not it is the other way around.   However, there are many fast developing cities that is capable of coping with the new technology because work is valued in congruent with the dignity of man.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gruen proposes a plan that could justify economic productivity of big cities and at the same time create sub cities that would adapt to what he calls â€Å"megalopolitan sprawl†.   However, globalization could also mean going beyond ones land area.   There is still vast area of lands wanting to be developed. There are many nations that are in need to cope with the present dynamics of the new world technology.   And while there are other places where overpopulation is a problem there are affluent cities in the second millennium that the inverted population growth also presupposes danger. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the abstract written by Dr. Mervyn Miller, he mentioned the book written by the founder of Letchworth, â€Å"Tomorrow a Peaceful Path to Real Reform† written in 1898 is very much true to our society of today. He recalls that the garden city is a potent concept in the emergence of the 20th century cities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Contemporary planners addressed the issue by following the course of people like Geddes.   However, due to the increase in the demand on the lease to life, those familiar workers cottages are considered mini-mansions of many career oriented people of today.   Ample spaces are defined as functional spaces due to the ever increasing cost per area of construction in square foot or in meters.   Coping with life that is becoming unsustainable is becoming a depressing problem even more than how George views it in his time. The internationalist who believes that nothing is gained by overcrowding still support the issue on the green environment that is very relevant today.   However, there are trends that are still needed to be discovered and be rediscovered especially within the new technology along on how this new ideas can be within the reach of everyone.   The key here is what kind of technology should be provided to sustain the ordinary man of the streets. The approach that Geddes concept has provided in his time is for the working class of the industrialized period.   That became the reason why today’s environmentalist regarded Geddes a steward in land use and its sustainability. Today, a number of men with the same aspirations of those Internationalist described is very much needed.   This fast growing old planet needs people who are a hundred percent human beings in the middle of the electro- mechanical world. Works Cited Grewar, Mindy. â€Å"Vivendo Discimus: Everything in the Garden Is Magnifique for the Anniversary Celebrations of a Great Scot.†Ã‚   (2004). 11 April 2008 . Hill, David R. † Sustainability, Victor Gruen, and the Cellular Metropolis.†Ã‚   (2008). 11 April 2008 . Killiecrankie. â€Å"Patrick Geddes 1854-1932.†Ã‚   (2008). 11 April 2008 . Lause, Mark. â€Å"Henry George.† 11 April 2008 . Letchworth. â€Å"Letchworth the First Garden City †   (2007). 11 April 2008 . â€Å"Sir Ebenezer Howard.†Ã‚   (2007). 11 April 2008 . University, Regent. â€Å"Lewis Mumford (1895-1988).†Ã‚   (2007). 11 April 2008 .   

Thursday, November 7, 2019

How to write a legal secretary resume (with examples)

How to write a legal secretary resume (with examples) If you’re considering an administrative career, the legal world can be a great place to focus your job search. Or similarly, if you’re thinking about a legal career but aren’t quite sure if you want to make the commitment to law school, working as a legal secretary/assistant can be a way to learn and grow your skills while you decide if this is something you want to pursue further. It’s a job choice that can open a number of different avenues for you, from executive assistant to paralegal or even attorney, depending on what kind of educational programs you want to pursue.Let’s look at three different legal assistant resumes- one entry-level, one mid-career, and one legal assistant seeking to move up into being a paralegal. First up is Eric, who’s a recent grad trying to parlay some internship and volunteer admin experience into a full-time legal assistant job.Download this ResumeEric Berman17 Carr StreetBirmingham, AL 12121(999) 999-9999EQBer man@emaildomain.eduRecent graduate with an interest in legal studies and experience managing complex legal administrative tasks, seeking an entry-level position at The Innocents Project as a legal assistant.SKILLSManaging schedules and arranging meeting logisticsHandling sensitive information with discretion and according to best practicesCommunicating verbally and in writing with clients and team membersBilingual fluency (English and Spanish)Conducting research using academic databases, books, and periodicalsProofreading and copyeditingEXPERIENCE  Legal Intern  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   January 2017 – presentTurner University Law ClinicServe as the legal intern for the university’s law clinic, assisting paralegals and attorneys with case research and ad ministrative tasks.Coordinate meetings between clients and clinic staffProcess invoices and check requestsAssist with research online and using legal library materialsStudent Volunteer  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   September 2016 – January 2017Turner University Law ClinicAssisted law clinic staff with filing documents and maintaining accurate client files.Answered phones and greeted clientsFiled legal documents and client informationEDUCATIONTurner University  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Birmingham, ALBachelor’s degree: American HistoryGPA: 3.8In your resume, you always want to emphasize your best aspects first. Eric starts with an ob jective that gives a snapshot of his situation, his experience, and his goal (tailored specifically to a job opening at The Innocents Project). He has some experience as an intern and volunteer at his school’s legal clinic, but no full-time work experience as a legal assistant yet, so he chooses to emphasize the kinds of skills he’s developed. That’s followed by a brief explanation of his relevant work experience. It’s a very targeted resume that shows Eric’s most relevant information.Next we have Molly, who’s been a legal secretary for a number of years and is refreshing her resume for new job opportunities.Download this ResumeMolly Chu1313 Barnard Ave, #4C ★ Boston, MA 98989888-555-8888 ★ Molly.Chu4@emaildomain.eduLegal administrative professional with more than 20 years of experience, including top law firms. Superior organizational skills with special expertise in handling confidential and sensitive materials.EXPERIENCESenior Legal Secretary  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Winken, Blinken, NodBoston, MA  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   June 2006 – presentServe as the head secretary for one of Boston’s top 10 family law firms, managing an administrative team of 4.Schedule client meetings and maintain three partners’ calendars.Prepare correspondence to opposing counsel and clients.Transcribe depositions and keep detailed logs.File pleadings, motions, and litigation materials for court.Coordinate and prepare exhibits and exhibit lists for trials and hearings.Organize discovery materials and attorneys files.Assist attorneys with organizing their caseloads an d meetings.Manage, train, and mentor a team of junior legal assistants.Legal Assistant                                                                             Maryann Banks, Attorney at LawBoston, MA  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   February 2000 – June 2006Provided administrative support for an attorney in solo practice, plus a staff of six.Drafted and sent legal documents, including court-related and client correspondence on the attorney’s behalf.Scheduled court dates and meetings.Organized and maintained case files.Executive Assistant                                                                    Van Pelt IndustriesBoston, MA  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   March 1997 – February 2000Supported a team of 6 sales managers at a Fortune 500 company.Managed calendars and travel arrangements for the executive Sales team.Maintained detailed records and processed reimbursement requests.Answered phones and greeted clients.Prepared correspondence for both internal and external partners.SKILLSWord processingDocument ManagementTime tracking and billingDocket and calendar managementTranscriptionVideoconferencingEDUCATIONWellesley Community CollegeAssociate’s degree, Legal AdministrationAssociate’s degree, General StudiesMolly’s best asset is her long experience, so that’s what she features most prominently. She uses a summary to offer a kind of highlights reel, but saves the most detail for her experience section. Her experience doesn’t include any way-back jobs that may not be relevant to her career and her current goals as a legal secretary, to keep the resume focused.And last but not least is Grace, who has experience as a legal admin but is looking to move up a step to paralegal.Download this ResumeGrace Ruiz777 Beagle StreetJacksonville, FL 333-9999Certified paralegal and experienced legal administrative professional, specializing in legal research and criminal defense procedure.KEY SKILLSDrafting clear, concise, and meticulously reviewed legal documentsConducting comprehensive legal research using databases including LexisNexis, Westlaw, Bloomberg, and HeinOnlineTaking depositions and providing information to clients and witnessesExpertise in criminal law and procedureLEGAL EXPERIENCEThe Marston Group, LLCLegal Secretary2014 – presentServe subpoenas and prepare pleadings, motions, discovery and trial bi nders.Obtain discovery information for attorneys and research case law.Support five attorneys in all aspects of criminal defense.Draft client and internal correspondence.Transcribe depositions and meeting notes.Prepare court filings, both paper and digital for the County Court System.Train and manage new secretaries and associates.Ferris WallLegal Assistant2011 – 2014Provided administrative support for two partners.Maintained schedules and client appointments.Conducted preliminary client interviews to prepare for attorney meetings.Developed and implemented a comprehensive digital filing system for legal files.CERTIFICATION AND EDUCATIONNALA Paralegal Certification (The Legal Institute, 2017)Associate’s degree, Criminology (Baxter College, 2008)ADDITIONAL SKILLSLegal citationMicrosoft Office suiteTranscriptionGrace’s resume is laser-focused on her legal career and what she wants to do next. Although a paralegal and a legal secretary can be similar roles, Grace w ants to make sure she’s emphasizing the key parts of a paralegal’s job (research, interacting more with clients, etc.) over the standard legal admin tasks of a legal secretary or assistant. At the same time, she wants to make sure her experience is clear. So she goes with a combined resume format, which takes the skills focus of a functional resume and the experience points of a traditional chronological resume and puts them together to create the narrative that she’s got experience, but is now certified as a paralegal and has the skills to move into that role.Remember that your resume isn’t just a laundry list of what you’ve done and where you’ve been, but a chance to frame your story as a professional. You want to maximize that story by highlighting the information that will best serve your goals for this new job.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

How to Manage and Maintain Paulownia tomentosa

How to Manage and Maintain Paulownia tomentosa An Introduction to Royal Paulownia: Royal Paulownia is a native of China where it is revered as a tree and loved for both its legends and its usability. The trees form is a bit ragged but can provide an enjoyable and dramatic, coarse-textured appearance with huge heart-shaped leaves and large clusters of lavender flowers in the spring. Paulownia flowers are usually set before leaf emergence so they really stand out against a neutral or evergreen background. With its very rapid growth rate, the princess-tree can reach 50 feet in height with an equal spread in an open landscape. Royal Paulownia Specifics: Scientific name: Paulownia tomentosaPronunciation: pah-LOE-nee-uh toe-men-TOE-suhCommon name(s): Princess-Tree, Empress-Tree, PaulowniaFamily: ScrophulariaceaeUSDA hardiness zones: 5B through 9Origin: not native to North AmericaUses: reclamation plant; tree has been successfully grown in urban areas where air pollution, poor drainage, compacted soil, and/or drought are commonAvailability: grown in small quantities by a small number of nurseries Invasive Exotic Status: Royal paulownia is a prolific seeder but not welcomed by many forest owners. Woody seed capsules form in autumn containing up to two-thousand seeds and can cover a large area using wind power. The seeds persist through the winter and have a high germination percentage. Seeds germinate readily in the landscape and because of this ability to take over a site, paulownia has been given invasive exotic tree status and planters are cautioned about its reproductive potential. Royal Paulownia Description: Height: 40 to 50 feetSpread: 40 to 50 feetCrown uniformity: irregular outline or silhouetteCrown shape: round; vase shapeCrown density: moderateGrowth rate: fastTexture: coarse Trunk and Branch Structure: Royal paulownias bark is thin and easily damaged from mechanical impact so be careful using equipment around the tree. Paulownia has a characteristic droop as the tree grows and will require pruning for vehicular or pedestrian clearance beneath its canopy. The tree is not particularly showy and to improve its appearance, should be grown with a single leader. There is a major pruning requirement: the tree needs regular pruning to develop a strong structure. Paulownia Foliage: Leaf arrangement: opposite/suboppositeLeaf type: simpleLeaf margin: entireLeaf shape: cordate; ovateLeaf venation: pinnate; palmateLeaf type and persistence: deciduousLeaf blade length: 8 to 12 inches; 4 to 8 inchesLeaf color: greenFall color: no fall color changeFall characteristic: not showy Pruning a Royal Paulownia: The Princess-Tree expresses rapid growth and can reach 8 feet in two years from seed. This causes frequent winter kill to tender growth. You will not find this to be a problem if you prune down to where an axillary bud can take over as the single leader. It is important to build a single leader as long as possible and there should be a clear stem to the first main branch at 6 feet or higher. This pruning process is especially important if you are wanting to utilize the tree for its wood. Royal Paulownia In Depth: Paulownia thrives best in deep, moist but well-drained soil that is sheltered from the wind. The tree has become naturalized in many parts of the southern United States so you can see them most anywhere in lower North American latitudes. Fuzzy, brown flower buds form in early autumn, persist over the winter and bloom in early spring. These buds may freeze in very cold weather and drop off. Woody seed capsules form in autumn containing up to two-thousand seeds. They can easily hibernate through the winter and germinate readily in the landscape or wherever they are carried. Leaves rapidly drop within one week following the first frost in autumn. Storm damage can be a problem as the tree is susceptible to breakage either at the crotch due to poor collar formation or the wood itself is weak and tends to break. It has no known insect enemies. There have been occasional reports of problems with mildew, leaf- spot and twig canker.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Technical summary Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Technical summary - Essay Example Mouse-adapted H1N1 A/PR/8/34 strains were used for the study. Genomic RNA (full-length) was acquired by infecting MDCK cells; the procedure was done under biosafety level-2 conditions. pFBHAhisKDEL and pFBMelHAhis plasmids were used to produce the recombinant baculoviruses BacHAhisKDEL and BacMelHAhis using Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The instructions provided by the manufacturer of the system were strictly followed. Control used was baculovirus vector BacNI (this is a baculovirus, which has no foreign gene). There was propagation and amplification of the recombinant baculoviruses in Sf21 insect cells in order to attain infective titers of around 108 plaque-forming units (pfu) (Gomez-Casado 36). Sf21 insect cells and the insect larvae (Trichoplusia ni) were infected using recombinant baculovirus dilution to attain the amount of pfu per dose required for each selection. Total soluble and non-denatured proteins (TSNDPs) were obtained through homogenization; these proteins were from baculoviruses infected T. ni larvae (Gomez-Casado 36). The proteins were prepared using various techniques for western blot (WB) assays and protein size determination. Recombinant HAhisKDEL protein purification from the infected larvae was done using Co2+-based immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) resins (Gomez-Casado 37). The response of HA-specific IgG (immunoglobin G) was measured using ELISA tests. Inhibition tests of hemagglutination were done for each of the duplicate based on instruction from the World Organization for Animal Health. Female mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were immunized and tested for virus challenge. The first group of mice (4) was immunized with TSNDP extract (containi ng HAhisKDEL protein) from the infected larvae. The second group (4 mice) was immunized with purified HAhisKDEL protein. Control group (3 mice) were immunized using TSNDP extract

Friday, November 1, 2019

Human Nature Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Human Nature - Essay Example On the other side, the USA marines want to attack the Japanese while on they are on the island and drive them into the sea (William 497). The USA marines and Japanese have similar plans, but the results are different, eventually the USA wins. This helps answer the question, because according to William Manchester, humans in the community are close and helpful together, it is difficult to know the enemies. Humans in nature have hatred, and they result to destruction. Further, human nature is, considering thoughts that go around the human mind, mostly being thoughts to cause destruction as studied and written by expert writers. Hoagland considers experiences involving suicide; he explains that men as compared to women are vulnerable to suicidal thoughts, as suicide helps men avoid life and the harshness that life offers. Arrogance and competition among men make them think of committing suicide; otherwise the same men are always holding their emotions back and taking pretence that suicidal thoughts are not running through their mind. Hence shows that humans in nature strive so hard to do destruction, and then when back to their being, strive harder to take them back and take pretence that they have no detrimental thoughts (Edward 507). From lessons of World War II, nations of the world still strive so hard to make weapons that are destructive to human beings, but their human nature tells them that it is the right thing to do. In accordance to Hoagland, as human beings get old, the more the pressure in life, thus opting to commit suicide, surprisingly with the same weapons they struggled so hard to make. Thus on bases of the two readings, human nature involves always striving to cause destruction to their own kind. Thus, forming a thesis on the human nature from the objective point, of which it is ending hope, is the filling of unifying

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Tourism Utah National Parks - Zion Research Paper

Tourism Utah National Parks - Zion - Research Paper Example Zion has some specific geological features that distinguish this national park from others. Zion is located at Colorado Plateau. Zion is characterized by a feature called Grand Staircase that formed as a result of uplift, tilting, and erosion of rock layers (The geology of Zion). Zion situates near the sea level and is seen as a flat basin in appearance. The eroded muds, sands, and gravels from surrounded mountains reached the basin and shaped Zion. It formed various layers at Zion. The mineral-laden waters gradually filtered through the accumulated sediments; and thereby the functioning of cementing agents like iron oxide, calcium carbonate, and silica have played a great role in transforming the deposits into stone (The geology of Zion). The volcanic activities at Zion region allowed the lava flow and cinder cones to form. In addition, there are ranges of other geological phenomena frequently occurring in the region. As discussed above, Zion National Park has many fascinating geolo gical as well as ecological features that attract large number of visitors to the park. Stynes reports that in 2006; there were 2.57 million recreation visits in Zion national park. Since thousands of people visit the park daily, all of them do not get staying facilities at park lodges. Therefore, several people depend on local lodges, motels, and cabins. In addition, the visitors greatly rely on local industries as they cannot get all their requirements inside the park. It greatly contributes to the sustainable growth of the local economy. For instance, as Stynes asserts, $113 million spent by park visitors assisted the economy to generate 2,432 job opportunities and increase the sale revenue to $143 million. The park itself employed large number of people and still creates new job opportunities. Hence, the Zion Park has considerably enhanced the overall development of the local economy. There are several common issues that affect national parks including Zion. Majority of the nati onal parks cannot use their resources to their fullest because of various reasons including lack of money, staff, and coordination (Top 10 issues facing national parks). National parks need to preserve the historic buildings and architectures as it reflects the culture of America; however, its maintenance costs are very high. In recent days, the areas surrounding national parks are being largely used for agriculture and living purposes; and these activities have adversely affected the wildlife to a large extent (Top 10 issues facing national parks). Foreign species’ invasion may affect park’s ecological balance as this process causes the extinction of natural species. In addition, construction activities also have become threats to the existence of national parks since these activities may lead to adverse environmental changes. Human caused noises also have a negative impact on the wildlife and it would negatively affect the sustainability of the national parks. At thi s juncture, the Soundscape Management becomes inevitable for the national parks. In order to protect the naturality of Zion national parks, various measures have been adopted. According to Havnes, these policies’ main intention is to protect the attributes of sound and thereby benefit the wildlife and nearly 3 million annual visitors to the park. As the writer describes, the park has been using ultra modern technologies to

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Music as a Tool for Learning

Music as a Tool for Learning The teaching of music in Primary Schools is an area of education that has seen dramatic changes in the last few decades. From a situation where music teaching was almost non-existent in some schools, and where in others young children were frequently alienated from music by being banned from choirs or told they were ‘tone-deaf’, music is now strongly represented within the National Curriculum. Current thinking emphasises that there is no such thing as a completely unmusical child, and the curriculum has moved from an emphasis on performance – often for the relatively gifted only – and passive listening to encompass composition, performance and critical appraisal part of the musical education of every child. This study considers music within the broader context of Primary education, considering the benefits of integrating music into other areas of the curriculum, and looking at the implications for learning bearing in mind that music in itself has been linked with improved behaviour and concentration (Glover and Ward 1998: 14), and thus may be considered conducive to a desirable learning environment for all subjects, and, furthermore, to the social and mental well-being of Primary school children. The development of modern Primary music education can be traced back to the introduction of the National Curriculum in 1987, although music at the time was considered low priority, and was not included in the Curriculum until 1991. When the National Curriculum was introduced, many teachers questioned its viability: it moved away from the topic-based teaching which had embraced a number of subjects without specifying distinct areas such as history or music or language. It was felt that by focusing on the topic rather than specific academic subjects, lessons held more interest for children. However, a number of educationalists had criticised the topic-based approach because of its lack of objectives and limited focus on specific achievement, and the National Curriculum sought to address this. Today, best practice is considered to be somewhere between these two approaches: subjects are distinct from each other, but a focus on the links between different disciplines is encouraged, and it is in this environment that incorporating music into cross-curricular activities can be particularly beneficial. The past few decades have seen a significant change in the delivery of music education. The Plowden Report (1967) recognised the importance of ‘non-specialist’ teachers being able to deliver music teaching : â€Å"It is to the musical education of the teacher that attention must first be given†¦ Comparatively few primary schools†¦can, for some time to come, expect to have a music specialist as a full-time member of the staff and it is even doubtful whether a specialist responsible for most of the teaching is desirable. It is the musical education of the non-specialist which, in our view, is the key to the problem.†(Web link: Plowden Report para. 690) It was over two decades before this thinking began to be properly implemented. In the meantime, schools relied on music specialists –teachers who were trained musicians, almost always skilled pianists –and this led, at best, to a detachment of music-teaching from the rest of the curriculum, delivered by the class teacher, and, at worst (where a specialist was unavailable), marginalised or non-existent music education. The development of a National Curriculum for music which is intended to be delivered by classroom teachers without any music specialisation has allowed it to be linked with other work more easily.More significantly still, delivery by the class teacher who, through far more exposure to the class than the ‘once-a-week music teacher’,understands the dynamic of the class and the individual pupils’situations, enables that teacher to deliver music teaching in a way that engages the class more readily and meets their specific needs. In 1991, the National Curriculum for Music was developed quickly,with limited research and, in many areas of music teaching, no accepted‘good practice’ that could be incorporated into the plan. In 2000, anew National Curriculum for Music was introduced that could take account of what had been learnt through the 1990s. The announcement of the government’s Music Manifesto in July 2004 suggested a further commitment to music education, with the aim that every child should have the opportunity to learn a musical instrument. Although this could be considered a move away from classroom music teaching, with the requirement for peripatetic instrumental teachers and the demands made on limited school time, the potential outcome is a future generation who consider a wide range of music to be part of their culture and experience, rather than something for their more gifted or more affluent classmates. In order to consider how music should be used across the Primary curriculum, some thought should be given to the ways in which children learn. There are various theories of learning: at the extremes are maturation, which suggests children should be left to learn through their own experiences, and behaviourism, which advocates learning through instruction from others. Many theories consider learning to be a combination of the two: Vygotsky’s theories reconcile the two approaches. Jean Piaget’s theories tend towards maturation and have been influential in education, though probably more so in the sciences than the arts. Through many years of observation, Piaget drew the conclusion that children establish a ‘framework’ within which they construct their vision of the world. As they experience something new, they try to explain it from the perspective of the framework (assimilation). Only if they cannot will their framework develop in some way(accommodation). Much of the experience Piaget considers should be self-generated and not instructional from teachers, parents or other authority figures. Piaget proposed four key stages of learning. For primary school teaching, the second and third stage are most relevant, covering the ages of around 2 to 7 (Pre-Operational) and around 7 to 11 (Concrete Operational) respectively. There is a lack of logic and a focus on the self in the Pre-operational stage, while in the Concrete operational stage, childr en are able to apply knowledge logically, manipulate information and understand the concept of others’ perceptions as well as their own. While Piaget’s theories are popular, many educators have reservations about them, particularly with regard to the specific age ranges linked to the stages. It is widely considered that such developments vary greatly in respect of age from child to child .Criticism of the Plowden Report has at times focused on its emphasis onPiagetian approaches (Gillard 2005). However, Piaget’s ideas are applied widely, including in music education, with its frequent focus on working together in ensembles (which helps develop understanding of others’ perspectives), or experimenting with the sounds that different classroom instruments can make (learning by experience). The behaviourist approach has lost favour in education: certainly in music, where it would be characterised by passive listening and instruction, it has been superceded by a more critical and analytical approach. Pavlov, famous for teaching dogs to salivate at the sound sofa bell, was a key figure in the development of behaviourist theory, and it has some place in musical education: for example, historical or cultural context of a piece of music is best explained by the teacher before pupils explore its musical qualities. Vygotsky’s theories, which suggest children learn by a combination of experience and instruction are perhaps more relevant to primary music education. Vygotsky took into account the social and cultural environment, particularly the influence of parents. He proposed that children’s development arose as a result of interactions with others. Vygotsky’s theories provide a link to theories regarding the learning of expression through the spoken word. A number of academic shave researched the area of music as a language which might be learned in a similar way to speech. In Barrett (1996), various research into the learning of oral language is explored to construct a framework in which successful learning of music might take place. Key to it is immersion: just as language is practiced all around the child, so too should music be, with parents demonstrating good practice as well as teachers. This parallels the Suzuki method of instrumental learning,where the parent learns alongside the child and reinforces at home what has been taught. Barrett endorses a method which leans towards maturation – â€Å"the learner is encouraged to assume responsibility for his own learning,with frequent opportunities provided for the continuous practice of skills† (Barrett 1996:72), with â€Å"the teacher available to assist when help is requested† (ibid). Yet there is also an element of behaviourism: â€Å"The experience of explaining, or teaching an item to another is often instrumental in clarifying the issues within the mind of the learner† (ibid: 69). In Mills’ exploration of the development of musical skills in the primary years (Mills 1996), a New Zealand study is discussed which supports Barrett’s theories. Through extensive fieldwork, Roger Bucktonfound that Polynesian children in New Zealand schools sung with moreconsistent vocal accuracy than those from European families. Millsattributes this to the difference in culture: â€Å"[Polynesian] children sing with their families and in church from anearly age. Children of European ethnic background†¦often arrive atschool with little background in singing.† (Mills 1996: 119) As will be seen, these various schools of thought have implications forboth the study of music and of other subjects, and hence forcross-curricular activity too. To consider music’s use across the curriculum, we must first consider its place as a subject in its own right. The National Curriculum addresses the following core areas: Performing skills: controlling sound through singing and playing Composing skills: creating and developing musical ideas Appraising skills: responding to and reviewing music Listening and applying knowledge and understanding. The scope of the National Curriculum for music is broad. By the end ofKey Stage 1, pupils are expected to reach a standard where they arecapable of organising sound, of using symbols to represent music, ofperforming with an awareness of others and of responding to the mood ofmusic. Beyond the practical, they are also expected to learn aboutvarious music from history and around the world – this provides auseful opportunity for cross-curricular work – and to understand thefunctions of music such as for dance, again offering cross-curricularopportunities. This kind of background knowledge continues to form a core part of thecurriculum at Key Stage 2, with the practical element further expandedthrough ICT, with the statutory requirement to â€Å"capture, change andcombine sounds†. Technological developments and greater affordabilitymean this is an area that has been practical to include in thecurriculum only in recent years, and for many teachers unfamiliar withmusic technology, this creates an additional challenge. However, it isagain a practical area to apply cross-curricular teaching in. At Key Stage 2, pupils are expected to develop a sense of musicalexpression along with more advanced ensemble skills. They should alsobe able to evaluate and suggest improvements to pieces of music by thetime they leave Primary School. This corresponds to a time when pupilsare developing their own tastes, influenced by a range of externalfactors such as family (particularly older siblings), or artistsspecifically marketed at ‘tweens’. An awareness of such subcultures canhelp the Primary school teacher to relate elements of the music lessonto them to create a particular resonance with pupils with suchinterests. A 2002 study by a team of researchers from Southampton Roehampton and Keele Universities carried out as part of the QCA’s (Qualifications andCurriculum Authority) Curriculum Development Project in the Arts andMusic Monitoring Programme produced some interesting findings(Hargreaves, Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant 2002). Many of the study’ssubjects were K S2 pupils. Across the study, which used interviews andquestionnaires to look at pupils’ and teachers’ attitudes to andengagement with school music teaching, children responded positively tothe performance aspect of the curriculum. Although many spent a gooddeal of time listening to music outside school (particularly popularmusic on the radio or on walkmans), little reference was made tolistening and appraising music in school music lessons, nor tocomposition. Given the government’s commitment to enabling every child to havethe opportunity to learn an instrument, it is perhaps surprising thatonly 17% of children thought this was something a school should offer,although the majority were learning or wanted to learn an instrument.While instrumental lessons may seem to offer limited scope forcross-curricular activities, and indeed may take up additional teachingtime, their indirect effect on other subjects is positive as thelearning of an instrument helps develop a range of skills includingco-ordination, concentration and self-expression. The Southampton/Keele study noted that a number of teachersexpressed concern over time and financial resources available toimplement a music programme. The time constraints suggest thatcombination of subjects through cross-curricular activity may be anattractive solution if managed appropriately. The study also showed that the use of external music specialists inPrimary music teaching was widespread and, furthermore, help fromspecialists was seen as vital to the success of the music curriculum.The aim that music teaching should be deliverable by non-specialistteachers is still not met entirely: â€Å"Technical demands of the curriculum are mentioned by many teachers:even those with musical qualifications and expertise feel unable tocover the entire spectrum of the music curriculum.† (Hargreaves,Lamont, Marshall and Tarrant 2002: Section 3) This is not expanded on. Teachers responded positively to theschemes of work, particularly as a tool for less musically-experiencedteachers, but it is possible that the breadth of the music curriculumis a challenge for teachers to deliver. The government’s increasedfocus on learning an instrument is likely to maintain this situation.It will be interesting to see whether, in future years, the generationof teachers that has benefited from the National Curriculum for Musicas pupils and who have had more opportunity for learning an instrumentthan previous generations of Primary teachers find it easier to deliverclassroom music lessons. The response from schools in the Southampton/Keele survey wasoverwhelmingly positive and it appears that the National Curriculum hasbrought classroom music teaching out of the margins by demonstratingthe many benefits of musical activity, notably those beyond musicalskills such as the social aspects and positive impact on behaviour andconcentration . In addition to focusing purely on music for a period within thetimetable, many teachers practise combining music teaching with othersubjects. This has roots in pre-National Curriculum teaching, wherelearning was frequently cross-curricular and based on a topic. Incertain situations, it appears that music is highly relevant in theteaching of another subject. This section explores the opportunitiesavailable and shows how there may be significant benefits for learningin all subjects in a cross-curricular lesson. Glover and Ward warn that there is a danger of attempting tocombine subjects in a way that has little benefit. They particularlydraw attention to themed songs which have no musical relevance: â€Å"In a topic on ‘food’†¦young children might be encouraged to sing ‘FoodGlorious Food’†¦ the links with the topic are spurious†¦the song may be apoor musical choice for a class who find difficulty with pitching thedemanding interval leaps.† (Glover and Ward 1998: 153-4) Glover and Ward also draw attention to the practice of linkingcomposition too closely to topic work, so that children are invited tocreate the sound of, for example weather, producing sound effectsrather than an appropriately-structured and thought-out piece of music(Glover and Ward 1998: 154). Bearing these points in mind, how can music teaching be productively combined with other subject areas? History lends itself to an exploration of music from other times. Astudy of the Tudors might incorporate a look at Tudor instruments andmusic, which provides further opportunities to consider Tudor life.Many pieces are dances, and pupils might participate in a dance of theera. Pupils can find out more about the function of the music, aboutwho would have been able to afford the instruments and who would haveplayed them. This might link with study of life for the wealthycontrasted with the majority of the population or of leisure pursuitsof the time. This helps reinforce what has been learnt about life inTudor times, while consideration of the stylistic qualities of themusic benefits musical understanding. Geography provides the chance to consider world music within its socialand cultural context rather than in isolation. Glover and Ward advocateexploring various musical styles from the same geographical area: â€Å"A little research goes a long way towards getting things intoperspective. Children will be interested in the detail and thedifferences between different music within a culture.† (Glover and Ward1998: 160) Through exploration of the elements which go to make a particularmusical style, children can learn about musical devices such as dronesor call-and-response structures. Simultaneously, by understanding therole of a type of music within a particular culture, they gain abroader understanding of different societies. Science lessons can provide a framework for the study of soundproduction. Through a focus on a range of instruments and othermaterials and their sonic properties (the production method of thesound, its qualities and pitch range, for example) causes pupils tofocus on the detail of sound. Composition activities linked toexperiments with sound production are enhanced: pupils consider thescope of their instruments in a broader range of musical parameters.Their scientific understanding of sound also benefits. Maths has particularly strong links with music, and various studieshave established a link between aptitude in maths and musical ability.Rhythm in music has a significant mathematical component: an obviousexample is the US note-naming system, where a crotchet is aquarter-note, a quaver an eighth-note and so on. Musical patterns offerthe opportunity to explore principles of symmetry, by playing a patternin its original form and in reverse. The inversion of a melody can belikened to reflection. A number of composers have incorporatedmathematical concepts into their music: many of these are rathercomplex for consideration at primary level, although the works ofXenakis may be useful for older Primary pupils. The construction of aparabola through a series of overlaid straight lines is visible in someof Xenakis’ scores, with lines performed as a string glissandi (slidesthrough pitch). Xenakis’ involvement with architecture, again using thescience of curves, may also be linked to lessons in this subject area.In addition to obvious connections with mathematics, Xenakis’ scoresare a useful example of how modern composers develop their own notationsystems and graphic scores, which may inspire children in compositionactivities. Literacy also has a close affiliation with music. The inflections inspeech are melodic and it has distinct rhythmic qualities. The settingof text to music draws on these connections. Explorations of languageand words – for example, rhyming words or short poem – can be takenfurther by turning them into chants or songs. A recent trend which underlines the links between language andmusic is the frequency with which children write a ‘rap’ rather than apoem. This could be taken further with a look at rap music payingattention to the dialect, fulfilling the requirement of the NationalCurriculum for English that children understand about language variety.However, any rap music should be selected with care due to subjectmatter and vocabulary in many rap tracks being unsuitable for use inschool. Narratives in literacy can also be explored through music, but itis important that children understand the concept of music without aprogramme and can link musical devices to punctuation: a cadence is afull stop, a musical phrase correlates with a spoken phrase (Glover andWard 1998: 166). The National Curriculum for Physical Education promotes the explorationof music through dance, and schools have a long tradition of music andmovement lessons. Dance and music together are included in thegovernment’s Schemes of Work: â€Å"Unit 31†¦In this unit children focus on popular dance styles ofdifferent eras. They explore a range of dances, using step and gesturepatterns, body shapes, contact work, and contrasts in dynamic andrhythmic patterning. They learn more about both dance style and music.†(Weblink: Schemes of Work: PE/dance) This unit has links to history and possibly geography too, so is truly cross-curricular. Response to music through movement is pertinent throughout our culture(the inclination to tap a foot to the beat, for example), and in youngchildren a physical response to music is common. Ben-Tovim and Boydinclude this as a criterion in a ‘Musicality Test’ to be applied whenconsidering whether a child should learn a musical instrument(Ben-Tovim and Boyd 1995: 18). Possibly the most difficult subject to establish effectivecross-curricular links in is art. While music and art can be seen asclosely connected, they both function in a similar role in terms ofproviding an outlet for self-expression through organisation ofelements, whether visual or aural. The temptation to play a piece ofmusic as an ‘inspiration’ for painting may result in the childinventing a programme for the music which is then represented in apicture. One must question the benefits of this regarding the verylimited extent to which it might benefit musical understanding, andalso its unintentional promotion of the idea that music must beprogrammatic. Also, is the music a background element compromising thechild’s concentration on the art, or vice versa? Overall, there is a wide range of opportunity to combine music withother subjects to the benefit of both curriculum areas concerned. Thepractical applications discussed above also fulfil a balanced model ofinstructional teaching and self-discovery: for example, the teacherpresents a recording of music from another era or land, and providesbackground information, but the pupils are encouraged to explore itscharacteristics for themselves. This promotes a blend of thebehaviourist and maturation theories discussed earlier. The opportunities for mutual support between subjects throughcross-curricular teaching demonstrates the importance of classroomteachers having adequate support and training to incorporate music intoother lessons; it is even more relevant in cross-curricular teachingthan in music lessons. By ensuring this is the case, benefits may beseen across almost all curriculum subjects. In addition to combining music with other subjects in order to teach itdirectly, music has further applications in the curriculum. The connections between language and music have a further benefit thatcan be utilised across various subjects. Text set to music is moreeasily committed to memory, and the use of songs to learn key facts iswidespread – for example, to learn numbers or the alphabet.Number-learning by song is effective, as one SEN teacher using singingin Maths comments: â€Å"Even if pupils don’t understand the concept of numbers, they can sing up to 10†, (Maynard 2004) Colwell’s research with Kindergarten children in the US (Colwell 1994)demonstrated that when children practised a reading text set to music,they read it with greater accuracy than a group who had practised thetext without its musical setting. However, although this researchsupports the findings of previous experiments, it used a sample of only27 subjects. Research undertaken by Dr Frances Rauscher, a former professional’cellist with a Ph.D. in Psychology, and her colleagues suggested alink between playing music to a group of subjects and a simultaneousincrease in their spatial-temporal reasoning abilities (Rauscher, Shawand Ky 1993). Since then, further research has been undertaken whichboth supports and questions these results. A further study in 1997 on preschool children showed a 34% increasein spatial-temporal reasoning tests among children who had receivedprivate piano and singing lessons compared to those who had not –including a group who had received private computer lessons. Theconclusion drawn by the researchers was that learning music was ofbenefit to learning potential in maths and science subjects, and moreso than computer skills. This research raises many questions. Firstly, it is widely thoughtthat the ideal age to begin learning an instrument is no younger than 7: â€Å"the second most common factor in musical failure was starting at thewrong time – too early†¦a six year old who goes on and on about wantingto play a musical instrument is experiencing the promptings of hisdeveloping instinct to make music, but he is not yet ready to do muchabout it.† (Ben-Tovim and Boyd 1995: 20) . It is therefore somewhat surprising that very young children engagedwith their music lessons in a way that increased their more generalmental capabilities. This has clear implications for the government’sMusic Manifesto; could earlier instrumental learning have a greaterbenefit in other subjects? The second issue is the findings themselves: as the computerlessons had little impact on test results while the music lessons madea significant difference, it is clear that private teaching alone isnot the cause of the improvement; rather it is the learning of music.However, it does not necessarily follow that by simply listening tomusic, a child’s academic potential in mathematics or any other subjectis enhanced. Rauscher’s research has created a great deal of interest bothwithin more general media and among psychologists and other academics.It has, to some extent, been mythologised with the label â€Å"The MozartEffect†. Rauscher’s findings have been disputed by a number of academics.Heath and Bangerter (2004) argue that the original 1993 research, oncollege students, showed only a small effect which was not prolonged,and that a number of research projects have failed to replicate theresults. They also demonstrated a link between the level of attainmenti n various states in the US and the amount of local newspaper coveragepromoting the Mozart Effect: the lower the attainment, the morecoverage. Heath and Bangerter attributed this to the recognition of aparticular problem and the possibility of a ‘quick fix’. In a number ofstates local government reflected media endorsement by subsidisingprojects to expose children to Mozart recordings, but it appears therestill needs to be more research in the area Rauscher herself has moved to clarify her research: â€Å"Our results on the effects of listening to Mozarts Sonata for TwoPianos in D Major K. 448 on spatial-temporal task performance, havegenerated much interest but several misconceptions†¦ the most common ofthese [is] that listening to Mozart enhances intelligence. We made nosuch claim. The effect is limited to spatial-temporal tasks involvingmental imagery and temporal ordering.† (Rauscher 1999) However, a number of studies have shown some evidence of a Mozarteffect in various different environments. Most relevant is Ivanov andGeake (2003) which found a Mozart Effect and a Bach Effect on Primaryschool children listening to music while undertaking a paper-foldingtask (again, this is demonstrating spatial-temporal competence ratherthan intelligence). This study also established that general musictraining was not a factor in the results – this suggests that playingmusic has a temporary effect on reasoning, and might not enhancelearning in other subjects subsequently unless music is played on thatoccasion. The Mozart Effect continues to be debated by academics because ofthe conflicting research findings. However, it is notable that limitedresearch has been done on the elements of music which might contributeto the effect, although reference to an unspecified study by Dr WilliamThompson (Weblink: Research relating to the ‘Mozart Effect’ (2)) notesthat the effect is evident when lively classical music, includingMozart and Schubert, is played, but not with slower music by Albinoni. Many teachers report using background music in a variety of situations with positive results: â€Å"For many years I have used music during lessons. It helps youngchildren relax in handwriting lessons, and helps their concentrationduring imaginative writing sessions.† (Hume 2004) It appears that there is certainly some evidence supporting playinglively classical music in a variety of class situations to boostpupils’ performance, and a number of teachers are using backgroundmusic in class and feel it to be beneficial. However, much research isstill needed in this area. Music teaching has a variety of uses within the curriculum for pupilswith special educational needs (SEN). The term SEN is used to refer topupils with special needs arising from a wide range of situations andconditions such as physical disability, emotional and behaviouralproblems, autism, school phobia, a background of abuse or stress ordyslexia. Many of these children may be academically gifted, others mayfind very basic concepts challenging. Music in SEN, as a result,fulfils a range of functions. For all SEN music lessons, there is the potential to cover areasincluded in the National Curriculum: listening and appraising,composing and performing. The nature of SEN teaching means that thesemay have to be adapted according to the needs of pupils. Cross-curricular activity can be useful tool: for example, whilepupils with concentration problems may struggle to sit and listen tomusic, they may be more receptive if asked to draw a picture respondingto music that is playing while they do so, although there can be adifficulty with children focusing on their art and barely noticing themusic. Perry (1995: 56) suggests using a 5 minute excerpt introducedwith a story – thus using literacy – to create an initial engagementbefore moving on to children drawing. Music may also be used as a form of therapy. For younger children,activities undertaken while standing in a circle are of particularbenefit in helping child a child with attention difficulties to engage.An activity might involve passing a teddy around a circle while musicplays until it stops, at which point the child holding the teddy has achance to play briefly on an instrument. The teddy helps those childrenwho might be resistant to the activity to accept it (Weblinks: Becta). For autistic children, music can contribute to establishing aroutine. With songs, for example, for lunchtime, for playtime and forgoing-home time, where the same piece of music is used consistently forthe same activity, singing can help maintain the sense of stability androutine which is particularly important for those with autism (Maynard2004). While musical activities can benefit children with specialeducational needs, care must also be taken not to cause a detrimentaleffect. Packe