Saturday, August 31, 2019

Poetry Essay

The poem described the speaker’s longing and hope for her happiness in life. As she raises everyday, she depicts life at its best to fulfill her joy and contentment even if she is alone. The four stanza poem discussed the character’s identity and idea towards joy and contentment in life. The speaker wants to convey to her readers that whatever circumstances they may have; it is a great start to thank God for a new day of life. The first stanza discussed the emotions of the speaker as she faces the new day. The second stanza discussed how she thanked her creator for the new beginning of challenges and happiness. The third stanza discussed how the speaker prayed for the people around her whether they are in the same race or not. The last stanza described how the earth is filled with gladness if equality and justice exist. The speaker described her prayer through this poem. It is a selfless desire to transform the earth into salvation and peace despite of all the injustices and social inequality. On the other way around, the title also described the wholeness of the poem. It serves as the identity and apparent illusion of the poem. The title of this poem showed the main idea of the poem as it reveals the attack of the poet. In conclusion to this, it can be said that the poem is too short to read and understand. The poem has simple thoughts to convey to its readers. The attack of the poet showed how prayer becomes powerful despite of all the troubles and fears of the society.

Friday, August 30, 2019

Ndebele in Zimbabwe

Ndebele in Zimbabwe The Ndebele people are dispersed widely across Zimbabwe and South African’s Transvaal Province and is descendents of the same tribe as the Zulu and Xhosa people. The history of the Ndebele people can be traced back to Mafana, their first chief. Manfana’s successor, Mhlanga, had a son named Musi who, in the early 1600’s, decided to move away from his cousins, later became the Zulu nation, and to settle near the hills of Gauteng where the capital of Pretoria is located.After the death of Chief Musi, his two sons quarreled over the position of chief and the tribe divided into two sections, the Manala and the Ndzundza. By the mid 19th century two other factions, led by other sons, then broke away from the Ndebele core. These groups were later progressively assimilated by the Sotho groups undergoing considerable cultural and social change. Later, the descendents of Manala and Ndzundza maintained a cultural identity and retained language which was c loser to the Nguni language.In 1883, during the reign of the Ndebele chief Mabhogo’s, war broke out between the Ndzundza and the South African Republic, also known as the Boer. Occasionally, Mabhogo’s warriors stealthily past enemy lines undetected to retrieve food and water. However, after two women of the tribe had been ambushed and tortured, one of the women revealed the Mabhogo’s whereabouts. After the defeat of Mabhogo’s military, the tribal structure was broken up and the lands were confiscated as the people became indentured laborers.Despite the breaking down of the tribe, the Ndebele retained their cultural unity. In 1923, they were able to purchase some land and began to regroup. In the mid-1970 the South African Government established the ‘homeland’ of Kwa-Ndebele. Both southern group’s fashioned beadwork in which the Ndebele cultural are famous for, but the Ndzundza are also noted for their elaborate wall paintings. Ndebele arts have been widely illustrated, especially from their wall paintings. For over a hundred years, the Ndebele have decorated the outside of their homes with designs.The elaborate homestead decorations, consisting mainly of geometric forms painted in a variety of colors dates back from 1945. Commercial produce pigments or various earth tones in the area are used. The importance of the wall paintings to the Ndzundza probably relates to its rough history, which has a strong sense of deprivation and self- awareness of their descendents. Ndebele women traditionally adorned themselves with a variety of ornaments, each symbolizing her status in society. After marriage, dresses became increasingly elaborate and spectacular.In earlier times, the Ndebele wife would wear copper and brass rings around her arms, legs and neck to express their loyalty and faithfulness to her husband. Husbands used to provide their wives with rings; the richer the husband, the more rings the wife would wear. She would only remove the rings after the death of the husband. The rings are believed to have strong ritual powers. Today, it is no longer common to wear these rings permanently. In addition to rings, married women also wore neck hoops made of grass twisted into a coil and covered in beads, particularly for ceremonial occasions.A further outstanding characteristic of the Ndebele is their beadwork. As Ndebele society became more westernized, the artist started expressing this change in society through their paintings. Many Ndebele artist have now extended their work into the interior of homes. Ndebele artists also produce other crafts such as sleeping mats and neck hoops. Neck hoops are made by twisting grass into a circle, binding it tightly with cotton and decorating it with beads. To help preserve the grass a keep its shape, the hoop is boiled in sugar water a left outside in the heat for a few days.Beadwork is a hundred and fifty year old art among the Ndebele, and plays an importan t role in tribal custom. Beadwork is more than just an art form to the Ndebele people, is an essential part of their culture and ethnic identity. Beads are used to decorate the body, ceremonial objects and items of clothing. Among the Ndebele, beadwork is worn exclusively by women, for whom the different beadwork or garments serve an identification of status. It is an important part of their rituals and ceremonies, which mark important events in family life, from a birth of a child, to marriage, to burial.As time consuming beadwork can be for the Ndebele people, a bride may work for 2-3 years to present to their future in-law family. The evolution of beadwork over the decades tells a story, in pictures and symbols, of a tribe that refused to die. Fertility is a major importance to the Ndebele people. A fertility doll is made for the bride by the maternal grandmother and is ritually presented to her when she enters her home after the wedding ceremony. Custom has it that, after the bi rth of the third child, the fertility doll must be given away, or destroyed, because it is considered unlucky to keep it any longer.Each doll is unique as the patterns from one doll to the next are different in pattern, style and color. In addition to strengthening the Ndebele culture identity, the beaded dolls are now an important source of income for most Ndebele as it continues to be an export item. Ndebele art has always been an important identifying characteristic of the Ndebele and has a cultural significance that serves to reinforce the distinctive Ndebele identity. Ndebele artist demonstrated a fascination with the linear quality of elements in their environment.Painting is done free hand although the designs were planned before hand. The symmetry, proportion and straight edges of Ndebele decorations were done by hand without the help of rulers. Ndebele women were responsible for painting the colorful and intricate patterns on the walls of their houses. After the establishme nt of Kwa-Ndebele there was a sharp drop in the number of decorated homesteads. In the desert the overcrowded shelters are built from metal sheet and cardboard which makes it difficult to provide a painting surface.However, this Ndebele art form began to take international attention in the 1980’s and early 90’s with publications of illustrated books on the subject. Promotions from individual artists like Esther Mahlangu created her version of wall painting on canvas and can be seen in a number of international exhibits. Bibliography E. Schneider: Paint, Pride and Politics: Aesthetic and Meaning in Transvaal Ndebele Wall Art (diss. , Johannesburg, U. Witwatersrand, 1986) http://www. sokwanele. com/pdfs/BTS. df â€Å"Breaking the Silence, Building True Peace. A report on the disturbances in Matabeleland and the Midlands 1980–1989† M. Courtney-Clarke: Ndebele: The Art of an African Tribe (New York, 1986) [excellent pls] R. Rasmussen: Ndebele Wars and Migrati ons, c. 1821–1839 (diss. , Los Angeles, UCLA, 1975) R. Rasmussen and S. Rubert: Historical Dictionary of Zimbabwe (diss. , Lan Hamm, MD,2001, 3ed. ) 10 Key Words Beadwork Paintings Varity of colors Earth Tone Kwa- Ndebele Geometric Ndebele dolls Symmetry Rituals/Ceremonies Ornaments

Thursday, August 29, 2019

Product outsourcing to Far East Enterprises Limited

In management accounting the premise of relevant costing is applied in order to evaluate business decisions. Such costing premise implies that only incremental costs and revenues pertinent to the decision at hand are considered. Past costs, commonly known as sunk costs and/or unaffected costs are irrelevant to the decision-making process. Therefore the calculations computed in Appendix A of this Report abide with the relevant costing principle noted in this paragraph.At face value, the agreed price with FEE of $395 per unit is lower than the total manufacturing costs per unit of $425. However, before rushing into any drastic conclusions it is imperative to consider the relevant costs and revenues. Further more, in this case, a particular time frame ought to be set up, because FEE is requesting a two-year contract with the company. Therefore the relevant costs and revenues have to be computed on a two-year basis.Upon assessment of the incremental costs and revenues on the two year per iod, it is outlined in Appendix A that an Incremental Loss of $8,929,280 will occur if the company appoints FEE as its supplier for this particular product. Thus it is more financially viable to make the product rather than purchase it from a supplier. The reason behind such a loss mainly rests because the buy decision will be unable to affect the general company overheads, in which a substantial portion is allocated to the GPSN Model.

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Drama- Los Vendidos ( Luis Valdez) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Drama- Los Vendidos ( Luis Valdez) - Essay Example This oppression entails racial prejudice and inequality faced by Chicanos while trying to achieve their American dream. However, Valdez uses satirical humor to depict these injustices and deliver the message to the audience. A good example of such humor occurs when Sancho responds to a customer’s concerns regarding finding a Mexican with the capacity to work for the government. The play is also impressive as it uses locations such as East of Los Angeles, which is suitable for the historical American setting because Chicanos lived in the region in the 20th century. In addition, Los Vendidos encompasses the use of stereotypes in dialogue to convey the author’s intended message. For instance, the dialogue between Sancho and a customer with regard to the maintenance of the Mexican models is implicit of a stereotype regarding Chicanos’ traditional foods, as well as their conventional work ethic. Los Vendidos’ use of both English and Spanish creates an uneven storyline that requires the audience to find translations to keep up with the story’s

Modern Art Periods Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Modern Art Periods - Assignment Example The paper "Modern Art Periods" investigates modern art and periods of it. Here will be discovered such movements as cubism, impressionism, and post-impressionism. The Stagecoach at Louveciennes is a painting which represents the impressionism. In essence, Impressionism transcended boundaries and traditions that had characterized art and pioneered the emergence of new and radical forms of art. The tendency by the impressionist artists to paint outdoors was also considered radical since most artists were used to painting indoors and then allowed the painting to dry gradually. However, impressionist artists preferred painting indoors. In addition, impressionism art avoided the use of symmetry in looking at most of the paintings of the landscapes one realizes that they preferred asymmetry but still managed to maintain balance. Figure 2 adapted from Impressionist Paintings shows an example of an impressionist’s depiction of a spring landscape. Impressionism redefined art through th e use of light and visual effects and the tendency to paint outdoors and a significant number of impressionism paintings depict landscapes. In depicting landscapes the impressionism artists employed asymmetry about an object like a tree. The utilization of space was done uniformly demonstrating a tendency to create balance. Figure 3 adapted from Impressionism Paintings, shows how the garden has been visually harmonized by the trees in the background. Manet’s painting style was always considered to be controversial. ... Perhaps one single impressionist artist that share many similarities with Manet is Edgar Degas. Both artists hailed from wealthy families and their paintings were often done luxuriously in places like racecourses. In fact when the two met Edgar influenced Manet to adopt a more impressionist approach in art. The artists share some similarities and difference in their style of painting. Figure 4: Daughter of Jephtha by Edgar Degas In figure 4 adopted from Blacksheep, one realizes that Degas occasionally painted from a historical perspective demonstrated by the Bibilical depiction in the painting. Degas also preferred the use of deep and dull colors. His paintings also brought about an important aspect of impressionism; depiction of movement. On the other hand as depicted in Figure 5 adopted from Blacksheep, Manet preferred the use of brigher and huge chunks of colors. Manet wlaso avoided historical paintings. Figure 5: The Absinthe Drinker Claude Monet contributed to suburban realism b y constantly providing a vivid depiction of the suburban places he had visited and the feelings the paintings had elicited within him. Monet’s depiction of the suburban areas was characterized by paintings indicating the simple pleasures of suburban areas where nature met with the emerging civilization. Figure 6 adapted from Claude Monet's Paintings, shows one of his paintings depicting pleasure boats at Argentueil. Monet uses light to depict the emerging civilization and its pleasures and dull colors to depict the tranquility of nature. In essence, the juxtaposition of nature and civilization as depicted by Monet provide new avenues of adventure by artists. Figure 6: Pleasure Boats at Argentueil

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Regulatory challenges raised by an increasingly wireless world Essay

Regulatory challenges raised by an increasingly wireless world - Essay Example This popularity is attributed to the recent discoveries and accomplishments done in the field of mobile communications such as mobile phones. Private firms are expected to invest at least 18 million in the United to States for the development of the next step in cutting edge wireless and mobile technologies (Frieden). One example that provides consumers of wireless communications a wide variety of advantages is the use of prepaid call cards. Like credit cards, prepaid cards eliminate the need to carry around cash often. It also allows the consumer to control his or her cell phone service expenditures. Advancement in wireless technology is "climate proofing", where wireless communication devices are designed to fit the climatic conditions of the country they are to be distributed and marketed to ("A social ecology of wireless technology"). Currently, the U.S. is still far away from its dream of being the wireless communication heaven that it envisions around the turn of the 21st century. Wireless communications today is not just limited to voice calls and the introduction of SMS, MMS and IM have already gained some leverage in significant market spots as well as providing consumers more communication options. Other wireless options aside from SMS, MMS and IM available are mobile games, MP3's and other non-communication applications are popular today ("U.S. Wireless Business Users.."). Type of Device Wireless Users Expect to Use Device Next 12Months Next 24 Months Data-centric 39% 19% Voice-centric 43% 72% Desktop/Notebook PC 10% 4% Other 9% 5% Source: Furthermore the advent of convergence all over the world has spurned several useful applications. Among these is the ability to avail of different communication services across several formats and platforms. These leaps and bounds in technology has been sped up by the liberalization of international trade which permitted the advancement of international digital communications networks which puts forward several services and options beyond their national limits (Gillwald). The need for regulating the wireless world Breakthroughs and advancements in technology start with the inventor developing his invention in the hopes that he can sell it for profit. When the development of the new technology is successful, the new product is eventually introduced in the market and several trade and intellectual laws and regulations are applied to it. The acquisition of a paten may take a long time or may only be possible under certain circumstances. Today, the digital work is in constant risk of being attacked by unscrupulous people, particularly hackers who deliberately alter or destroy crucial data as it please them. Hacking may lead into bigger conflicts,

Monday, August 26, 2019

Inquiry into Media Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Inquiry into Media - Essay Example It is also imperative to take some time to go and watch the affiliated film and make use of a graphic organizer to make comparative studies between the book and the film. After all these activities, the learner makes a discussion, sighting important scenes within the movie that paid attribute to improving the book and also giving examples of scenarios that were a bad idea. In the end, the involved parties select various scenes where their personal opinion is that it was not appropriately represented in the film, and this makes it easy for the leaner to present it as a theatre performance. The use of films in class has a lot of educative value, especially when one considers the examples of critical thinking in relation to the stories that are in the movies. When we add films to the curriculum, this provides an extension and expansion to learning experiences and openings for making intellectual connections for all interested parties. Therefore, this paper takes a looks into the prelimi nary part of the film Titanic produced in 1997 by James Cameron based on a book written in 1953. The primary focus of this essay is the Titanic and here it is the role of the student to explore ways that one may change some of the scenes to other forms of media such as articles, books, short stories or other films (Hockfield 13). The Titanic is a very good film that had the intention to capitulate and become one of the best photographic winning films of all times. The film cost an estimated $200 million plus that resulted in the blinding the critics and audiences, where they were overcome with delight that it was possible to direct and produce a smart action-packed movie. As a result, the movie turned out interestingly and surprisingly great, and Titanic t-shirt wear, posters, calendars, soundtracks, documentaries, and interviews became the order of the day. As one decides to go and watch the film, it is important to distance oneself from these opinions and come to a conclusion afte r a close encounter with the characters and the ideas that the director was critically attempting to reveal. Many people refer to it as the best film they have ever seen. The ship sails through the Atlantic Ocean, and the tragic end started when the machine hit the tip of an iceberg and started sinking. The most remarkable characters that stand out are a poor chap named Jack and a very rich lady named Rose. The wealthy Rose came to America to get hitched after the death of her father, who left her penniless. The two young people met and defy all odds of the social classes and ultimately fall in love. There is a catch; they have to do it in the shadows because, apparently, the rich and the poor have a stigma that occurs in their existence. It is an emotional depiction of love and romance that takes place on a doomed ship that is 46,000 tons of pure steel that seemed undoubtedly unsinkable. One of the characters survived, and one is always wishing that there are two survivors who leav e the audience in awe at the love and romance that sparks between them. It is not a new thing to find an individual crying in these types of films. Jack and Rose are the most breathe-taking leading characters that have a love that is in disguise as they are of different social classes and who are even on different classes onboard the ship.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Why Control Development Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Why Control Development - Research Paper Example Control development is such a scheme. Emphasis is given on answering the following question: ‘Why control development?’, meaning the reasons for the superiority of control development towards other concepts and mechanisms of similar role. Through the review of the literature published in the particular field it has been proved that control development can significantly help towards the improvement of urban planning; however, it would be necessary for certain terms to be met. In the long term, the effectiveness of control development cannot be guaranteed, being influenced by the social and economic trends that are likely to change overtime. In any case, control development is the most credible process for securing the quality of urban planning and for this reason it should be preferred by urban planners when having to address various social, economic or spatial challenges. 2. Planning Theory Various approaches have been used in the literature for describing the role and the value of planning, as a theoretical concept with important implications on town planning worldwide. In accordance with Lichfield (1998) the theory of communicative planning best reflects the context of planning as the basis for the design of cities and communities worldwide. The above theory is based on realities, as the main element of planning; it is explained that these realities are depended on the life of people within a particular community and the needs of this community. It is implied that planning, as a theory, is a reflection of daily human needs – referring to people as members of a community. From a similar point of view, Sorensen (1999) notes that the first signs of town planning and control development can be identified in the academic movement based on the views of 19th century philanthropists; it is explained that the academic writers who based on these views emphasized on the need for ‘rational public control for urban development’ (Sorensen 1999, p.147). The above theory is characterized as socialist aiming to achieve the following targets: protection of the interests of the working class, of ensuring the expansion of public housing and ‘the increase of the power of citizens to participate in urban management’ (Sorensen 1999, p.147). The above theory was opposed by the revisionists, who emphasized on the value of privatization of public assets and the limitation of public housing – highlighting the importance of private capital for defining the terms of housing and the urban planning in modern cities (Sorensen 1999). This trend is reflected in Cities for Sale of Sandercock; in the above book reference is made to the power of the state to set the rules for urban planning and to prevent the private sector from highly intervening in the town planning process (Sorensen 1999). However, concerns are developed regarding the effects of the limitation of private funding in various public projects. The revisionist approach in town planning has been opposed by the idealism, a theoretical trend that has been partially based on socialist and revisionist theories for explaining the context and the value of town planning. In accordance with the idealism approach on town planning, ‘planning should be based on a ‘

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Discussion Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion Questions - Essay Example While considering the facts given in situation (a), we came to know that both the firms (our firm as well as competitor’s firm) have revealed their strategies openly and both the firms can calculate their own benefits while taking other’s production quantity and other strategies into account. This situation offers the optimal benefits that are driven by the strategies applied by our competitor therefore it indicates that there is a Nash Equilibrium condition (James Brickley,  Clifford Smith,  Jerold Zimmerman 9-5). While on other hand when we don’t know exactly the strategies of our competitor and still set our preference for optimal benefits then the condition refers to dominant strategies. Dominant strategies always lead to maximum profit whether we know our competitor’s strategies or not. This particular condition may be a case of dominant strategies because here we are dedicated for optimal profits (James Brickley,  Clifford Smith,  Jerold Zimmerman 9-5). However, since some dominant strategies fall under Nash Equilibrium and the situation satisfies the required aspects of Nash Equilibrium we can say that this is a Nash Equilibria

Friday, August 23, 2019

Social Work Approaches Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Social Work Approaches - Essay Example Significantly, this type of therapy concentrates on how the individual thinks and behaves at present rather than in the patient’s early childhood experiences that could have brought about the typical behaviour. The approach entails weekly therapy sessions that is coupled with daily practice exercises designed to help patients apply the cognitive behavioural therapy skills which they have learned into their own personal settings or environment. Treatment is short and does not last longer than 16 weeks or 4 months (University of Michigan \depression Centre, 2006). Cognitive behavioural therapy employs three (3) essential features, which are (University of Michigan Depression Centre, 2006): 1) Cognitive restructuring, 2) behavioural activation, and 3) enhancing problem solving skills. Cognitive restructuring focuses on the identification of the maladaptive or erroneous thoughts that makes the patient feel depressed. Usually, the depression is about themselves, their environment and their future. Maladaptive thoughts about themselves include feelings of being worthless or stupid because they cannot get jobs or because they commit mistakes – which in reality are considered petty or small problems. In connection with this, they tend to lose interest and cut back on their customary activities, which an ordinary and normal individual get pleasure from as part of his or her daily existence. Thus, the person concern spends more idle time to focus on distorted thoughts that would eventually pave way for negative emotions. In relation to the foregoing, home settings and the environment in general makes a person feel depressed because he or she perceives being a social outcast. This is why social interactions with the family and with the community become deficient and limited. This makes the person withdrawn and resentful due to the wrong notion that nobody likes him or her. As a consequence, typical home life is disrupted because the

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Poetry essay Essay Example for Free

Poetry essay Essay ?How does Owen Sheers use language, form and structure to explore ideas about separation and division in ‘Winter Swans’? The Poem ‘Winter Swans’ seems to convey a strong theme of natural love. The poem begins with setting a scene of a peaceful day, where nature seems to be stilled after the torrential weather that is referred to in the first line through ‘The clouds had given their all. ’ It goes on to say that there was then a ‘break’, and throughout the poem the poet uses words such as ‘silent’ and ‘rolling’, ‘stilling’ and ‘slow-stepping’ to capture this scene of peace and serenity, as if the world was resting after being thrashed about by a storm. With the idea of a natural love, there comes the confusion and the inartificial knowledge that love is not materialistic, a feeling and something that can not be brought on by force. Through all natural love stories come feelings of hurt and division. A separation that brings the subjects closer and strengthens the emotion. Sheers uses the theme of leaving, and then returning, or rage, and then peace, or the unknown, and then the known to reoccur throughout the poem, eventually strengthening the love, which could be argued as the main emotion of the poem. The poet also uses imagery such as ‘lakes and ‘swans’, to symbolise the peacefulness, and also to symbolise love. You notice words that show the subject is not alone, with ‘we’ and ‘our’. These words and also the motion of the swans, the lake, and the peacefulness are foreshadowing that the poem will take a turning onto love that is more literate. However I don’t think that the poems theme is so much about love in particular, but about a natural love, a natural pull that brings two people together even after hard times. Sheer’s uses Swans as a metaphor of love, the way swans will smoothly dip in and out of the water, and how they are known to curve towards and away from each other as if dancing on ice. They are the perfect example to show the way love will draw away and then come back. He uses vocabulary ranging from ‘silent’ and ‘rolling’ to ‘righting’ and ‘rough’ to show the separation and how quickly the emotions get confused, and how quickly compassion will turn into anger, and vice versa. The poem begins referring to this in the first stanza with weather, as raging storm. And then a ‘break’. The poet then adds on ‘in which we walked’, showing possibly that the subject and whoever they are with also went through a hard time, but are now peaceful along with the nature. In the fourth stanza it describes the swans ‘halving themselves’ in the ‘dark water’, to portray a hard time, but then ‘returning again like boats righting in rough weather’ It then moves onto the poems only piece of speech, â€Å"they mate for life. † Which rounds off the conclusion of the theme of the poem, that although there are hard times, they will always be pulled back together. The poem then shows this also applies for the people, as at the beginning of the poem it describes them as being ‘silent and apart’, but right at the end it shows them holding hands, symbolising how they are together. The poem’s theme is concluded with comparing them to a ‘pair of wings settling after flight’, to show that finally, the emotion has strengthened, and they can settle after the confusion and separation.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Pizza Hut Report Correction1 Essay Example for Free

Pizza Hut Report Correction1 Essay Pizza Hut, Inc. is the largest pizza restaurant in the world in terms of both the number of outlets and the percentage of market share it holds. On June 15th, 1958, two brothers Dan and Frank Carney opened the first Pizza Hut restaurant in Wichita, Kansas. A friend suggested to them that they should open a pizza palor, the brothers agreed that the idea could prove successful. The Carney brothers borrowed $600 from their mother to start the business with friend John Bender. Renting a small building in downtown Wichita and purchasing second hand equipment to make pizzaz, the Carneys and Bender opened the first Pizza Hut restaurant. On the opening night of the restaurant, they gave pizza away to encourage community interest. Pizza Hut, Inc. oversees more than 11,000 pizza restaurants and delivery outlets in 90 countries, for example, Trinidad and Tobago, worldwide. A Pizza Hut restaurant is characterized by a particular freestanding design with a prominent red roof. The restaurants are full-service, eat- in/carryout with about 60-90 seatings, open from 11 a. m. to midnight. Pizza Hut delivers pizzas, pasta and wings. They were not only the first to provide America with Pan Pizza, but they were also the first ever online purchase. SID: 1517851/1 Mission Statement Pizza Hut, Inc. mission statement is: We take pride in making a perfect pizza and providing courteous and helpful service on time all the time. Every customer says, â€Å"I’ll be back! † Another part of Pizza Hut, Inc. mission statement is: We are accountable for profitability in everything we do, providing our shareholders with value growth. Pizza Hut core values goes by the acronym P. E. A. R. L. S PASSION for excellence in doing everything EXECUTE with positive energy and need ACCOUNTABLE for growth in customer satisfaction RECOGNIZE the achievement of others and have fun doing it LISTEN and more importantly, respond to the voice of the customer. SID: 1517851/1 Financial Summary SID: 1517851/1 Marketing Mix 7 P’s Product ? Pizza Hut only sells pizzas but deals in a variety of other products such as appetizers, beverages, desserts, pastas ?Pizza Hut mainly sells four types of pizzas with three sizes, namely small, regular and large. Those are Pan pizzas, Sausage crust pizzas, stuffed crust pizzas, thin crust pizzas. Price ? Pizza Hut follows a high/low pricing (â€Å"Price Skimming†) strategy. Thing high/low strategy has several advantages for Pizza Hut such as: ?Use to create excitement SID: 1517851/1? Set high price initially to send a signal that its products are best in quality and service offered in excellent. ?In competition either from pizza players or from substitutes, Pizza Hut has also reduced price by maintaining the same level of customer service and quality. Promotion ? Media advertising ?Sales promotion ?Special events and experiences ?Public relations ?Coupons ?Discount Process ? The customers are invited to check the ingredients used. ? Delivery on time or free next time ?Take away refined carryout procedures to provide faster, more efficient service rapidly expanded the delivery operations throughout the country implementing combination operations Place ? Pizza Hut’s first method of distribution is delivery. ?Offers dine-in ?Online ordering ?Largest competitive advantages is the restaurant style facility SID: 1517851/1 People ? Pizza Hut have a standard uniform for their employees ?Employees are well trained ?They maintain the customer and employee relationship in good manner. Deliver consistent standards of hospitality. ?They always appear well groomed Physical Evidence ? Pizza Hut focuses on neat and clean environment ?The staff believes that they are providing the superior quality to their every customer ? They have a pleasing environment ?Nice interior decorations which looks rich SID: 1517851/1 Marketing Mix Summary Pizza Hut, Inc. mainly sells Pan pizzas, stuffed crust pizzas, sausage crust pizza, thin crust pizzas. They follow a â€Å"high/low pricing† strategy as far as its new product are concerned where it fixes the price higher than its competitors and then gradually lowers the price below the competitor’s prices. Pizza Hut offers dine-in and also delivery, their employees are well trained and well groomed. The food manufacturing process at the restaurant is completely transparent. Pizza Hut focuses on neat and clean environment. They promote their business through advertising, human relations et chetera. SID: 1517851/1 Market Analysis Suppliers – Some of Pizza Hut’s suppliers in Trinidad are Arawak, Flour Mills, Coca- Cola, SOLO and Blue Waters. Public – The bank, employees, media governments and T. V has a big impact on the company due to the storing of their money, getting workers to get the job done and advertising. Intermedians – There are no intermedians for this company. Customers – Competitors – Pizza Hut’s competitors in Trinidad are Dominos, Marios, Pizza Boys, Joe’s Pizza and Papa John’s. The market share in the pizza business is very high due to the amount of brand name pizzas, therefore if you want to go into the pizza business, I suggest you go under one of the brand name companies. SID: 1517851/1 PESTLE Political – Political issues may affect the business in different ways. There are political factors in Trinidad affecting Pizza Hut due to competition. Factors such as laws on business employment, taxation and pollution apply on the organization which it has to follow regarding the rules. Environmental There are no laws that are really affecting the company environmental wise, However, the company must contribute to the community in some way. Socio-Cultural – Every country has cultural norms, values, beliefs and religion which can affect the organization. Technology – Today’s techonology is improving. Due to new technology the company is able to bake and heat products faster which provides efficient service. There are also new ways of marketing for instance, internet; telemarketing and the organization can advertise their products with much more faster pace. Management Information System helps in collecting customer data, daily transactions and forecasting. Legal – Due to daily operations, the laws are not affecting this business in any way. Economic – Once the country’s GDP (Gross Domestic Product) is high, this will be a great signal for the business as the per capita income of the people will be increased SID: 1517851/1 and they will spend more money. In Trinidad and Tobago the GDP is high which is a great signal for this organization. Reference List SID: 1517851/1 https://order. pizzahut. com/home? http://www. slideshare. net/deepankarverma73/pizza-hutreport related=1 SID: 1517851/1 SID: 1517851/1 Module Title: Marketing Essentials Module Code: Due Date: Thursday 16th, April 2015 Word Count: 1000.

Price Discrimination: Concepts and Types

Price Discrimination: Concepts and Types â€Å"Please explain in details the concept of â€Å"price discrimination†, what are the different types of price discrimination. Explain with the use of examples.†   Ã‚   According to Phlips (1983, p.5) â€Å"the more one thinks about price discrimination, the harder it is to define.† Phlips (1983, p.6) suggests that price discrimination should be defined as† implying that two varieties of commodity are sold (by the same seller) to two different buyers at different net prices, the net price being the price (paid by the buyer) corrected for the cost associated with the product differentiation†. Another definition of price discrimination is â€Å"where a firm sells the same product at different prices† (Sloman, 2006, g.13). Geographical location, gender, race, age and income are some of the aspects in which discrimination among buyers may be established. In order for price discrimination to work, businesspeople must be incapable of buying goods at the lower price and reselling them at a much higher cost. The firm or company must have to some extent, monopoly power and firms must be capable of classifying domestic and industrial consumers (, 2014). Laws against price discrimination have pursued to hinder its use by one business retailer driving out another competitive seller â€Å"bankrupt† by depreciating the rival in his own market, whereas retailing at a higher cost in other markets. (Encyclopedia Briticanna, 2014). There are three types of price discrimination. These are: first-degree, second-degree and third-degree price. According to Dwivedi (2006), the first-degree (also known as perfect price discrimination) is considered the â€Å"discriminatory pricing that attempts to take away the entire consumer surplus†. Investopedia (2014) defines consumer surplus as a form of economic strategy used to evaluate customer satisfaction. This is analyzed by exploring the difference between what customers are prepared to pay for each and every single good / service comparatively to the market price. Dwivedi states therefore, that only when the seller discerns the precise amount that a buyer is willing to pay for an item, (buyer’s demand curve) will first-degree price discrimination be deemed as successful. But how will the seller know this information? Dwivedi states that firstly the seller initiates the highest buying price that consumers are ready to pay (some may be willing to pay an elevated price while others at a lower price) and buy at minimum a unit of a product. Only when the consumer surpl us of this segment of customers is used up, the seller then progressively lowers the price so that consumer surplus of the buyers regarding the subsequent products can be obtained. An example of first-degree price discrimination provided by Cabral (2000, p. 170) is that of a doctor providing health care in a small town and who has ample information of all the people living in the town, particularly their financial status. Acting on this information, the doctor analyzes the client willingness to pay each fee and sets a suitable price. Another example provided by Cabral, is by aircraft. While certain manufacturers publish a list of fees for each airliner, in actuality each airline shells out a different cost for each aircraft. The graph image below shows a monopoly representation of the first-degree price discrimination. MC (marginal cost) and ATC (average total cost) are the regular curved shapes with MC traversing through the minimum point on the ATC curve. The solid line that slopes downwards represents the firm facing the market demand curve, which is identical to the firm’s demand curve, (D = d). The marginal revenue relates to the firm’s demand curve, (d = MR) since the company expenses every customer the highest price he / she is ready to make. At the output level, profit maximization happens; matching to MR equals marginal cost. Plast represents the price for each and every last unit of product sold. Subsequent units have a higher price. The end profit for the company adds up to the profits received for every unit subtracted from the ATC per unit (ATC0). The shaded area displays the total profit earned since the price for every unit is the highest price as established from the demand curve. Graham (2013). According to Mukherjee (2002), second-degree price discrimination is where prices vary depending on the amount of output bought by each consumer. This is also known as â€Å"volume discounting†. The seller incurs a higher â€Å"per-unit† cost for the lesser units sold while for the larger amount of product are sold at a lesser per-unit cost. Similar to the first-degree price discrimination, the company will result at a quantity of output where the marginal costs are covered by the prices charged. The objective of the seller is to draw out not the entirety of the consumer surplus, but just some of it as profits along with a remaining surplus. Ruby (2003). An example of this type of discrimination is the different prices charged for different sizes of cereal. Another example of this type of discrimination is the discounts found in stores; for instance a shoe store would advertise a list of shoes that qualify for the discount, where if a customer purchases one pair of shoes the other one would immediately grant that he/she gets a discount off the other pair of shoes. The illustration below represents a graph of second-degree discrimination. Ruby from, utilizes an example of a company charging a variation of three prices for one item. He points out that if a user decides to purchase Q0 units then the cost P0 is charged for each unit of the good. For a larger quantity Q1 a lower charge P1 is made and for quantity Q*2 the price P2 is charged. â€Å"(the level of output such that P2=MC (Marginal Cost)† The third-degree price discrimination occurs where a firm is capable of dividing its consumers into different markets and charging different prices. Or in other words, charging different fees to each customer class. Each market is distinguished by exceptional â€Å"demand† characteristics. It is noted by Ruby that some of these particular markets may be â€Å"less† price sensitive in correspondence to others where the quantity demanded is more â€Å"sensitive† to cost alteration. This form of discrimination is very similar to second-degree price discrimination. An example provided by Managerial Economics, Hirschey (2009), is that a bus company may incur a lower fee and apply this type of price discrimination towards senior / aged people, as well as the disabled / handicapped individuals. This will therefore benefit these particular customers, providing a great service to ride the bus. Due to the increase of revenue earned from these passengers, the bus company may provide additional services such as going off route (routes that could not be maintained by the income from those full-fare customers only or it may be capable of functioning with a lesser taxpayer subsidy. References Phlips, L. (1983).The economics of price discrimination. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire]: Cambridge University Press. Sloman, J. (2006) Economics, (6th Ed). Prentice Hall/Financial Times.,. (2014). Price discrimination. Retrieved 15 September 2014, from Price discrimination. (2013). Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica. Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago:Encyclopà ¦dia Britannica Dwivedi, D. (2006).Microeconomics: Theory And Applications.(1st ed.). 327. New Delhi: Pearson Education. consumer surplus. (2014). – Your Source For Investing Education. Retrieved September 15th, 2014, from Cabral, L. (2000). Introduction to Industrial Organization.(1st ed.) Cambridge, Mass. MIT Press. Graham, R. (2013). Managerial Economics For Dummies. (1st ed.). [Graham, R. Graph of First Degree Price Discrimination]. Retrieved September 15th, 2014, from: Mukherjee, S. (2002). Modern Economic Theory. (4th ed.). New Age International. Ruby, D. (2003). Price Discrimination. Retrieved September 15th, 2014, from: [Ruby, D. Graph of Second Degree Price Discrimination]. Retrieved September 15th, 2014 from: Hirschey, M. (2009). Managerial Economics. (1st ed.). Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning.

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

Religious Themes in Oryx and Crake Essay -- World Literature Religion

Religious Themes in Oryx and Crake It is in these representations of Snowman that I believe Atwood is making a definitive statement as to whether God created man or whether man creates God. Undoubtedly Atwood is suggesting that man inevitably, despite of himself, creates God, with or without outside assistance. It seems that throughout the novel there is an extended metaphor of Snowman as various figures from the Christian bible. The first figure that Snowman can be said to represent is that of Adam, the first man, though the similarities between the two characters do not follow the same chronology. Just as Adam is given the animals as companions to look over, similarly Crake has ensured that the Crakers and Jimmy are both left in the newly re-created world as companions. Another strong resemblance and play on words can be observed in the Christian story of original sin and Crake's mass destruction of humanity. In Genesis, God sets aside one fruit tree and commands Adam not to touch or eat from it, as a result of Adam's betrayal, God casts him out of paradise, and forces hardship on him for the rest of his days. Likewise, Jimmy is fully cognizant the first time he meets Oryx that she is off limits to him, yet his betrayal of Crake ultimately results in his leaving Paradice and forces various hardships on him. Lastly, in the Snowman-as-Adam device, there is a realization that the companions which have been assigned by a higher power are insufficient, and the following desperate need for companions that are closer on the evolutionary chain. For Adam, this companion was Eve. Throughout Atwood's novel Snowman is absolutely desperate for some companion, someone more understanding than the Crakers, or better than his ow... ...t this leads to a rather interesting debate: whether or not the Crakers would have eventually created religion or at the very least art themselves, regardless of Snowman`s interference. I believe that Atwood is commenting on the fact that it is man's nature to be existential, to wonder where he came from, and who created creation, and that it is natural to invent possible answers to these questions when none are evident. For example, as Snowman returns after his foray back into the Compound he finds that the Crakers have created an idol of him and are chanting his name in a way which sounds like `Amen', "next they'd be inventing idols, and funerals, and grave goods, and the afterlife, and sin..."(361). Either way you look at Snowman, as a religious patriarch or a representation of the biblical serpent, he is still corrupting the Crakers with his false dogma.

Monday, August 19, 2019

Proximity and Juxtaposition :: Essays Papers

Proximity and Juxtaposition In order to properly compare and contrast the similarities between juxtaposition and proximity a definition is surely needed of the two. Proximity for instance, refers to the relative nearness of forms, and how that effects the relationship between them. Juxtaposition on the other hand, refers to the way in which elements or forms are placed next to each other. Juxtaposition and proximity are two important aspects of design that are often used together and must be taken into account when creating a work of art. One similarity between juxtaposition and proximity is that they both have the ability to communicate what type of connection should be made between a grouping of elements or forms. For example, when referring to proximity, if the elements are placed closely together in a design, they relay to the viewer that they are a group, and they should be translated as one. The way 2 elements are placed together (juxtaposition) conveys a relationship as well. An example of this is in Gustav Klimt’s art work (see last 2 pages) titled, "The Kiss" (Gombridge 65). In Klimt’s painting a man and a woman are placed next to each other in an interesting way. The forms of their bodies are distorted and resemble the abstraction of melting and movement. There is an obvious relationship between the two forms which would not be as apparent if the forms were not juxtaposed the way that Klimt chose to. The bodies are vertically aligned, so that a oneness can be achieved. Had the man been upright and the woman horizontally placed across the ground, the two forms would communicate differently. The feeling of movement, melting, and oneness, would surely lose its’ intensity. Taking an even closer look at Gustav Klimt’s art work, the viewer may focus on the geometric shapes within the 2 forms. At first the viewer notices that rectangular shapes are juxtaposed within the male form, and a majority of the woman’s form is filled with circular shapes. However, towards the lower and upper parts of their bodies, juxtaposition and proximity are used to form a relationship between the rectangular and circular shapes. There are a few rectangles and circles placed so close to one another and in such a way that the onlooker can no longer distinguish between the man’s and the woman’s bodies.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Comparing Love and Acceptance in I Stand Here Ironing and Everyday Use :: comparison compare contrast essays

Love and Acceptance in I Stand Here Ironing and Everyday Use Tillie Olsen's I Stand Here Ironing, and Alice Walker's Everyday Use, both address the issue of a mother's guilt over how her children turn out.   Both mothers blamed themselves for their daughter's problems.   While I Stand Here Ironing is obviously about the mousy daughter, in Everyday Use this is camouflaged by the fact most of the action and dialog involves the mother and older sister Dee.   Neither does the mother in Everyday Use say outright that she feels guilty, but we catch a glimpse of it when Dee is trying very hard to claim the handmade quilts.   The mother says she did something she had never done before, "hugged Maggie to me," then took the quilts from Dee and gave them to Maggie.   In I Stand Here Ironing the mother tells us she feels guilty for the way her daughter Emily is, for the things she (the mother) did and did not do.   The mother's neighbor even tells her she should "smile at Emily more when you look at her."   Again towards the end of the story Emily's mother admits "my wisdom came too late."   The mothers unknowingly gave Emily and Maggie second best. Both mothers compare their two daughters to each other.   In Everyday Use the mother tells us that "Dee is lighter than Maggie, with nicer hair and a fuller figure."   She Fahning -2-speaks of the fire that burned and scarred Maggie.   She tells us how Maggie is not bright, how she shuffles when she walks.   Comparing her with Dee whose feet vwere always neat-looking, as if God himself had shaped them." We also learn of Dee's "style" and the way she awes the other girls at school with it. The mother in I Stand Here Ironing speaks of Susan, "quick and articulate and assured, everything in appearance and manner Emily was not." Emily "thin and dark and foreign-looking at a time when every little girl was supposed to look or thought she should look a chubby blonde replica of Shirley Temple." Like Dee, Emily had a physical limitation also. Hers was asthma. Both Emily and Maggie show resentment towards their sisters.   The sisters who God rewarded with good looks and poise.   Emily's mother points out the "poisonous feeling" between the sisters, feelings she contributed to by her inability to balance the "hurts and needs" of the two.

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Dramatic Impetus in a View from the Bridge

Dramatic impetus is defined as an impelling movement or force within a play. In A View from the Bridge it is dependant on conflicts between opposing sets of values in areas such as relationships, gender, age and the community. The main character we are opposed to is Eddie as his set of values towards the end of the play contradict values of society, his family and even his own. He represents the older generation and the male stereotype of the 1950’s and also demonstrates justice being put to serve by the driving human emotions. His love is unevenly spread across the family causing conflict and destruction to his marriage, his family and even his life. There are five different relationships in the play, which are all affected by one conflicting emotion, causing the most important dramatic impetus. All the characters share a love as a family, at the start, as they all would take a risk for one another in any circumstance. The Italian brothers, Rodolpho and Marco, share a brotherly love so strong that they would lay down their own lives for the other brother. Rodolpho and Catherine develop a young romantic love, one set off at the very first sight and carries on throughout the play. Beatrice and Eddie are of course married but we are told mid way through Act 1 that their love has lost its passion. Beatrice questions Eddie when she asks â€Å"When am I going to be a wife again, Eddie? † in which he replies with â€Å"I ain’t been feeling good. They bother me since they came. † This conversation is unnatural for a married couple as the act of sex is supposed to be a common activity in the marriage life and especially desirable for men. All these relationships create a tension, set off by the one relationship based upon Eddie’s emotions and pride. Eddies love for Catherine – although not admitted by him but clearly shown to the other characters and the audience – enforces the dramatic impetus. Catherine and Eddie’s love at the start is clearly affectionate like a father and his daughter however in this case; Eddie is Catherine’s uncle. Catherine says, â€Å"I’ll get you a beer, all right? to Eddie at the start of the play, which evidently shows her affection to him as a father figure. However, this love develops into an incestuous love on Eddie’s behalf which conflicts with every relationship and the value of love. This love opposes Eddie’s love for his wife, Catherine’s love for Rodolpho and the love between Rodolpho and Marco. When it comes to love in the play, dramatic impetus is dependant on the deep passion that creates jealousy and causes pain bot h to the person who loves, the person who is loved and those around them. The way in which the law takes part in a crime can never satisfy the victim’s idea of justice as our decisions are based upon the emotions that we feel and therefore it is not true justice; it is not objective. However, where should our value be put when it comes to the betrayal of family and the betrayal of the law? Where can justice satisfy either values? At the start of the play, Eddie is seen as an honourable man for taking in two relatives as illegal immigrants and providing them with a roof over their heads and work on the pier, he even warns Beatrice and Catherine to not say a word, for the mere protection of the family. His warning is carried in a story about Vinny Bolzano whose family had hidden an uncle in the house. Vinny had â€Å"snitched† to the Immigration and suffered the consequences. â€Å"BEATRICE: Oh, it was terrible. He had five brothers and the old father. And they grabbed him in the kitchen and pulled him down the stairs – three flights his head was bouncin’ like a coconut. And they spit on him in the street, is own father and his brothers. The whole neighbourhood was cryin’. † The irony in this, is that Eddie becomes the betrayer, the â€Å"snitch†, in the second act when he walks into a telephone booth and rings up the Immigration Buereau. His action goes against his own values of trust, family and honour because they have been dictated by his feelings for Catherine and against Rodolpho. The little trust that Marco had for Eddie is now gone and there is nothing more the two would want more than justice and revenge progressing into an outbreak of conflict as they fail to look for a higher principle of justice separate from their own feelings found in the law. Although Eddie values the honour in his name, Marco values the trust bonds of family, which provides the dramatic impetus of Eddie’s tragic death. Values of sexuality and gender in the play are very conflicting even when the accusations are false. Men tend to value power, strength and honour in their name and not receiving the praise for these attributes can be very demeaning and conflicting to ones self. For example, Eddie is a very honourable man at the start of the play but his honour gradually decreases due to his own emotions and when that honour in his name is taken away by Marco there is an external conflict between the two in the last scene. Both Eddie and Marco are masculine characters and their similar values are conflicting in both a competitive way and in a form of loyalty, especially in the last act where Marco defends his family’s honour. Women also have values that conflict with their own. Catherine and Beatrice have a minor conflict in that they both fight for Eddie’s attention; for male affirmation as the daughter and as the wife. They both value Eddie’s opinion at the start and so they work to satisfy his needs but when another male comes onto the scene, this changes causing the conflict between males for the woman’s attention. This is clear in the play when Rodolpho steps onto the scene and captures Catherine’s attention, dragging it slowly away from Eddie. Due to his pride and jealousy, Eddie makes accusations that Rodolpho is homosexual which was not valued in 1950’s society. Eddie tries to give evidence that Rodolpho just â€Å"ain’t right† and explains to Alfieri, â€Å"I know a tenor, Mr Alfieri. This ain’t no tenor. I mean if you came in the house and you didn’t know who was singin’, you wouldn’t be lookin’ for him you be lookin’ for her. These accusations not only create dramatic impetus but also provide a shock value when in act 2, Eddie â€Å"pins [Rodolpho’s] arms, laughing, and suddenly kisses him. † This reveals to the audience Eddie’s true thoughts and feelings in a very dramatic way. It is obvious that Eddie does not value homosexuality as he represents the masculine but his accusations to this opposin g value creates a conflict and furthermore provides dramatic impetus. Amongst different age groups come different sets of values and attitudes towards traditional manners. Rodolpho and Catherine represent the youth and when Rodolpho and Catherine decide to marry without Eddie’s permission, this is scene as disrespectful. It is generally polite and traditional in past generations to ask the parents for a daughters hand in marriage so when this tradition is broken then conflict breaks out. Eddie also does not value materialism like Rodolpho does as the consumerist generation which takes part in the conflict between Eddie and Rodolpho. It is said that wisdom comes with age and so do wrinkles, which is why the idea of beauty in older women is valued. Beatrice represents the older generation in the play and it is clear that she feels jealous of Catherine’s young beauty. â€Å"BEATRICE: You think I’m jealous of you, honey? CATHERINE: No! It’s the first I thought of it. BEATRICE: Well you should of thought of it before†¦Ã¢â‚¬  Although these values between youth and adult are not major factors of conflict, they contribute to the dramatic impetus and create a momentum towards the final outburst of built up tension between the characters. Arthur Miller creates dramatic impetus in A View from the Bridge through conflicting character values. The different types of love shared are all conflicted with the one emotion that brings about a roll of events and an outburst of tension. Justice is values only by the state of ones emotions and therefore can differ depending on the situation but will always intend to provide revenge on the criminal or victim. Gender and sexuality creates conflict through accusations as the 1950’s did not value homosexuality. The values between different generations provide dramatic impetus in the play.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Warriors in Peace: the Economic Life of the Samurai Class

University of the philippines, baguio| WARRIORS IN PEACE| THE ECONOMIC LIFE OF THE SAMURAI CLASS IN TOKUGAWA JAPAN| | ANIDA, CESNA CO| 3/20/2013| The warriors of Japanese history the samurai belongs to the upper class of the society. During the Warring States and before that samurai were used as killing machines ready to slay anyone who was against with their masters. But during this time of peace, samurai have no war to fight anymore. Despite their high status in the society their economic life is not proportional to it all.They only depended on the rice-stipend given to them by their daimyo and was produced by the farmers. | Table of Contents Introduction2 Short History of the Samurai2 Establishment of Tokugawa Japan3 The Economy4 The Samurai of Tokugawa Japan5 Change of Perspectives6 Social and political Position of the Samurai6 Role in the Economy9 Role in the Fall of Tokugawa11 Conclusion †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 11 Introduction This paper aims to explain primarily the economic life of the samurai class during the Tokugawa Japan.Moreover this also covers the economic structure of the Tokugawa Japan as well as political and social feature, because discussing Japanese economy alone is impossible without covering some of the political and social facets of this country. To make this paper possible records and book archives were studied and analyze. By studying this paper the colorful and vibrant everyday life of the samurai was discovered and what did they contribute to make the modern Japan possible. The life of the samurai was full of extremes from loyalty to the way of death, their economic life to their social status and other paradoxes of their life.Reading this paper will help you to understand the long running history of the one of the most beautiful cultural achievement of the Japanese including their way of thinking and deep rooted sense of identity. Short History of the Samurai Originally from the old Japanese word saburahi which means ‘to serve’ (Ikegami, 1995), samurai class emerged from the Heian period around ninth or tenth century when land became the most important asset and must be protected. There were three groups were the samurai class began. First, the protectors of the aristocratic family in urban areas which also served as police evolved into warriors.Next the kondei or ‘stalwart youth’ was bestowed by the government with power to protect their lands and borders from barbarians and lastly the private soldiers that were systematized to defend the shoen or estates of the local elites against bandits or the government itself. Some families that established power developed military expertise and became regional forces (Andressen, 2002). Example of this was the early sam urai family from the Heian period – Taira and Minamoto. The power of the samurai class became further recognized because the establishment of the Karakura peiod in 12th century by Yoritomo Minamoto.This was the first official government lead by the military shogun or by the shogunate which means literally ‘Barbarian-Subduing Generalissimo’ (Nakane, 1990). Yoritomo was able to rise up in power because he sought support from the samurai class then after usurping the power he created a semi centralized regime with the imperial court on the other side. These were the two power structures governing the medieval Japan but eventually the shogunate was able to monopolize the power whereas the emperor became a mere symbol. This lasted until the fall of Tokugawa in 1868 which was succeeded by the Meiji Restoration. Establishment of Tokugawa JapanThe period of Warring States in Japan was the time of chaos and political instability that eventually cause scrappy political and economic control. The shogunate loses their grip in power while the regional feudal lords arose and fought each other to be on top. One of these feudal lords was Oda Nobunaga from Owari. He wanted to bring the Japan into a one nation state and use the banner Tenka Fubu which means ‘extension of military rule throughout the land’. Unfortunately he was not able to bring this to reality because he was killed by his own vassal Akechi Mitsuhide. But later on he was succeed be his loyal follower, Toyotomi Hideyoshi.By brutal force he was able to win this position by killing Oda’s slayer and murdering his rivals. After the death of Hideyoshi he was succeeded by Tokugawa Ieyaso, by succeeding the seat he benefitted in the land that Oda and Hideyoshi unified. He was the one that established the Tokugawa Japan. He created the bakuhan system wherein the bakufu was the central government under them was the 270 daimyo domains (Nakane, 1990). This was the political framework of this period which the Tokugawa shogunate seized the power. Tokugawa Japan lasted 265 years of peace from 1603-1868 (Tokugawa, 2009). The EconomyThe early Japan was basically a feudal society which means that they were an agricultural based society. The economy depended on land-tilting and crop planting, rice was there main crop and staple food and peasant-farmers dominated the population. Before the official inauguration of the Tokugawa Japan one of the most important propellers of order and stability especially in terms of the economy was the policy that Hideyoshi delivered which was originally planned by Oda. The Taiko Kenchi which refers to the nationwide cadastral survey where the land was surveyed and a uniform official measurement for rice was created called kyo-masu.Thru this nationwide standardization the process of calculating the rice production by means of koku was introduced. This system was called kokudaka system where a certain locality was manage by a daimyo and in that village it was required to produced 100,000 koku of rice measured in kyo-masu (Nakane, 1990). After the death of Hideyoshi which marked the inauguration of Tokugawa Japan by Tokugawa Ieyaso the kokudaka system remained a policy on the economy. Ieyaso benefited in what Oda and Hideyoshi established and accomplished. Tokugawa Japan was the last stage of agricultural society of Japan.Villages that engage in agriculture were called noson aside from them there were the mountain villages the sanson in which upland and forest production was their mode of production and lastly the villages that depend on fishing the gyoson (Nakane, 1990). But still the main source of income came from the agricultural sector and rice production which can be pointed in the richness of the land of the provinces that generated massive agricultural making. More than agricultural economy of Tokugawa Japan also another phase that defined this period was their closed-door policy or sakoku jidai that was imple mented by the bakufu.This solidarity significantly contributed to Japan’s peace and stability by focusing in the internal affairs of the country. The Samurai of Tokugawa Japan In general there was a paradigm shift in the life of the samurai class in the Tokugawa Japan. This transformation happened in their different facets of life. From political, economic and social there were changes in which gave more color and life in the history of samurai. From the brutal and violent warriors they became administrative officers that planned and over looked the lands in where their daimyos was taken post.Samurai now were not allowed to tilt the land and became a farmer at the same time. Instead of learning the art of killing they became also scholars and artist that contributed in the cultural history of Japan. These very men that were once only used as soldiers in war became the leaders that govern and guide Japan in their building of a strong and firm nation. Change of Perspectives Lik e what had been said above change became an element of this period for the samurai. Historically the samurai class was established to become human machines that will be used to protect and to serve their lords with lifelong loyalty.But from the transition of the Warring states to Tokugawa era their identity will change and transform into a simple foot soldiers into leaders that will build an empire. Because of Hideyoshi’s ‘Sword Hunt’ in 1588, the samurai class became a pure samurai class. Sword Hunt restricted peasants to hold swords and other weapons while samurai were not allowed to become farmers. This policy resulted to the rigidity of the social structure in Tokugawa Japan which was only fully executed in the term of the 3rd shogun Iemitsu (Sansom, 1963) where he considered this policy hereditary and fixed. Social and political Position of the SamuraiThe military class includes all weapon-holding family which starts from the warlords to the poorest samurai. Inside of the classes there were sub-structures. Clear distinctions were between upper and lower class samurai. Upper class rode horses while lower class travels only using their feet (Kublin, 1973 ). Koshogumi were the personal attendants to the daimyo belongs to the upper class and other samurai belonging to this class were chief minister, high officials, Confucian scholars as well as doctors. After that, were the lower samurai class and on top of it were calligraphers and then the stable keeper the nakakosho.Other attendants of the daimyo were the tomokosho and those who do the duties of patrolling and guarding the gate and the estate. The lowest of the class were the ashigaru the common foot soldiers (Bellah, 1957). Mobility between these sub-structures was so small that within the 265 years of Tokugawa only hand-full movements in these sub-structures were recorded. Despite these micro-distinctions inside this class, the samurai were highly privileged people. In Tokugawa Japan the basis of the social hierarchy was not wealth but power.The position in the society was based on value system: prestige correlates directly with power (Bellah, 1957). Position in the society was legal and hereditary; wealth has less importance than status. The samurai class does not belong to the common people unlike the other classes– farmers, artisans and merchants. Samurai class was above these classes and had the right in using their swords against the people belonging in the lower class in any chance they disrespect a samurai. Even though Tokugawa Japan was a time of peace the swords of a samurai was not just for decoration but a sign of their social status.Also samurai was the only asides from the nobility that were allowed to use surnames. Politically just like their social status the samurai hold much of the power and control in governing the Japanese people. The very fact that the bakufu or shogunates belong to the warrior class was an evidence of their political domination in Tokugawa Japan. After the bloody war during the Warring States the samurai class have no wars to fight and peace was almost everywhere therefore they were the ones that filled the government position and became officials.This undertaking can be narrated in correlation to the education of the samurai in this period. Because of the problem in unemployment in the samurai during the beginning of Tokugawa Japan the shogunates educated the warrior class and see the potential of them working as officials and government workforces. Ieyasu stated that learning and military arts should be equally pursued (Kublin, 1973 ). These resulted to the employment of the samurai as teachers in military arts and sciences, officers and clerks in the feudal and bakufu government. Moreover some became intellectuals and artist.These war soldiers became steward of the lands of their daimyo being more than just their soldier but their loyal attendees and personnel. These teachings that the samura i class undertake, especially by the upper echelon, came from Song Neo-Confucianism. The change in the system required new models and values to be applied in the military government. Therefore, the scholars and intellectuals develop beliefs system which will work for this kind of regime. The Bushido or â€Å"the ethics or the way of the warrior† was a code created and harmonized only in the early Tokugawa period, during the middle of 1660’s.Though the way of the samurai already existed on the early periods, the samurai were expected to have a life of discipline and loyalty, it was rarely expressed consciously as a structured ideology centered around a preoccupation with moral behavior (Ikegami, 1995). It was only during the time of Tokugawa that the need for a national philosophy has to be established and it was the bushido. In this philosophy the samurai were projected as leaders by showing the people the example of life-long loyalty. Civil officers charged with the m oral and intellectual guidance of the masses.It was also credited that a samurai not doing his ‘moral obligation’ was no different to ‘bandits and drifters’ (Tokugawa, 2009). Also the samurai were also expected to not to think about money or anything that concerns it. The responsibility of the samurai was more than a fighter but he should be a model of morality in doing his duty as a loyal servant to his master, to be wise and a man of character wherein he will lead the people. From the beginning of the; feudal society it was the ethics of loyalty, discipline and obedience that held it together. It was the foundation.Samurai were expected from the beginning to sacrifice their lives for their masters. This is how the samurai culture became really unique and a foundation to the Japanese wholeness. The samurai distinctive belief in honor was the basis of unique cultural style and identity. Samurai were called haji aru mono which means â€Å"those men with a s ense of shame†. This was also another factor that separated them with other classes– they would sacrifice and give their live for by doing this was an honorable act (Ikegami, 1995). The way of the samurai or bushido became the national ethic of Tokugawa (Bellah, 1957).Its basis in the new interpretation of the Neo-Confucianism developed the Tokugawa Japan’s civil service with a strict code of moral values. All in all the social status and education of the samurai which help them to hold the political position in nation building became their way in creating a national identity and a sense of unification, for the samurai were the nation’s leaders that guided their people by showing example of loyalty, discipline and morality which resulted in building a strong and unified country. Role in the EconomyIt may be said that this paper already focus on the wrong direction, but let me clarify again the reason why spending a notable pages in explaining the social an d political role of the samurai in Tokugawa Japan. I believe by narrating these aspects the reader will able to see the real position of the samurai in the Japanese society. It will shred light in understanding the significance of the samurai class in the nation building of Japan. So as I take to the main study of this paper I would like to keep in mind everything that was already discussed and told about the samurai.As told by history before the establishment of the Tokugawa Japan, samurai were also farmers, they were peasant-warriors. They avoided battles during the harvest time or in the plantation itself. Throughout the Warring States, 15th and 16th century there was a risk that a village would become a battleground for the samurai (Tokugawa, 2009). This problem was solved by the Sword Hunt of Hideyoshi by that unemployment flooded the population of the samurai. Mostly those who belong to the low ranking samurai, that sparked the ronin (samurai that were master less or free samu rai) revolt of 1651 (Sansom, 1963).The population of the samurai was only a 5 to 7 percent of the total population of Japan (Tokugawa, 2009). Their economic life was really unique versus with their other contemporaries in other countries that also belonging to the warrior class, the knights of Europe for example. The mode of production of the Tokugawa Japan was feudal which means that they rely highly on agricultural means in producing their resources. The land was rich and Japan feudal society was a rice economy. Rice was the primary commodity and it was not monetized.Surprisingly, samurai did not own any lands and belongs to the â€Å"parasitic class† (Bebedict, 1946). This is why it was said above that the samurai class was different in other warrior classes of that time. Their economic wealth did not reflect their social status at all. Samurai class was said to be â€Å"parasitic class† because they were pensioned by the daimyo and received only stipends from the r ice production that time which was produce by the peasant-farmers. Their houses and lands were basically not their property but only given to them by their daimyo. This stipend was fixed for the family of the samurai (Bebedict, 1946).During the Tokugawa Japan the feudal lords or daimyo were subjected to the bakufu government wherein to subdue them their han (the land they were conducting) were not given to them permanently but daimyos were in a continual rotation. After sometime the shogun will send another daimyo in change of the daimyo that was posted on that land. This system affected the samurai that they will follow wherever their daimyo will go. They were both living in the castle town ‘assigned’ to the daimyo. These factors now clearly show how the samurai is dependent to his daimyo.The loyalty between the samurai and to his lord Tokugawa Japan was based on the unending war that were happening that time but after that their relationship became primary economic in nature. It was also mentioned earlier about the micro-structure inside the samurai class. This discrepancy in position also affects how much the stipend of a samurai was. The higher the rank of the samurai the larger amount of rice was given to him and vice versa. Higher class samurai receive sufficient amount to support his family while the lower did not receive enough.Therefore, some have to supplement themselves by creating handicrafts and some engaged in secretive trading enterprises (Bellah, 1957). Another implication of this stipend-system in the samurai was that some part of their stipend was converted to money in order by selling it to merchants to buy commodities other that rice. But this doing became only eminent during the later years of Tokugawa. Higher ranking samurai were the ones that collect tax in terms of rice and their share in the harvest was about 40 percent (Tokugawa, 2009).While high ranking samurai were taught polite accomplishments the lower class learned w riting and arithmetic to prepare in clerical work. Because of this the lower class became very influential in actual administration (Bellah, 1957). Now it was described how poor the economic position of the samurai class can get no matter how high their social status. This crisis became worst when the rice-dependency declined in the later years of Tokugawa Japan in 18th century. Japan was slowly becoming a money economy and the value of rice started to deteriorate.Moreover, wealth rested on the hands of the merchants that were the lowest in the social structure. The variety of goods or commercial commodities that can be bought by money increased, the importance of the rice within the national economy dropped (sharp) (Tokugawa, 2009). The implication of this to the samurai as well as to their daimyo was they became poorer and some were suffers with large debt. Merchants became richer and samurai became poorer, moneylending became of part of their life were the borrowers were the samu rai and those who lend the money were the users that were mostly merchants too.Furthermore, some samurai were able to acquire money by selling their statuses and rights (Bellah, 1957). Also when they arranged with a merchant an adoption of the merchant’s son in the samurai family the samurai family will be able to attain wealth while the merchant will be able to obtain status. Samurai were poor people that only depended on the rice stipends given to them by their daimyo and produce by the farmers. They were expected to be contented with everything that they have for they were perceived not to live in a comfortable way of living.Their top priority should be their loyalty to their master and guiding the people with their discipline and moral values. Their duty in the government should not be motivated by any compensation per say. But this was not the whole picture. Tokugawa Japan started to decline and the rice based economy was starting to be not able to support the growing de mands of the country. Money became powerful and merchants became richer while those who were sitting in the government itself were becoming poorer. These challenges piled up in front of the bakufu and to add to these pressures were the external factors.Other countries like the Dutch and Americans were finding their way in this close country of Japan. Role in the fall of tokugawa Shift in the economic system of Tokugawa Japan during the middle to the last years cause the gradual fall of it. Rice production was still important and rice still remained as Japanese staple food but its role as the basis of wealth and means of acquiring commodities eventually decline when the economy became more monetized. More commercial commodities were being produce and consumed that implies a more sophisticated urban living.This marked the end of the agricultural society of Japan and modernization was already peeping in the horizon. Though in the late 18th century the economy of the Tokugawa was changi ng the main schema of power shifts still remain political. This was where the role of the samurai came in. There was a huge discrepancy between the wealth of the classes those merchants that belongs to the lower class were the richest and most economically stable rather than the daimyo with their samurai who manage the land and the government itself.Order was able to maintain because of the strong authoritarian principle leading the country. Also the economic revolution in Japan did not trigger war but instead it created more unity between the rising merchants and the government. The Shingaku movement led by Ishida Baigan was an economic movement membered by many merchants in the late Tokugawa. Instead of stratification between the bakufu and the merchant class this movement parallels its ideology to the existing moral principles that time.The way of the warrior or the bushido should be also the way of the merchant as Baigan implies. Merchants should become greedy industrialist. But like the samurai should serve the people but assistance with the empire and the profit they acquire is just a reward of their services (Bellah, 1957). The samurai honesty and loyalty should as be modeled. More than being a role model of the merchants, the samurai class worked and moved in the coming modernization of the old Japan. It was the lower samurai class that was responsible for the restoration of 1868 (Bellah, 1957).Because the lower samurai was the one assigned in the doing the clerical and government jobs they were the ones that know the real situation and seeing that poverty became rampant and the system was no longer effective, the coup d’etat was launched and they were able to overthrow those in power and established back the meaning of the emperor, that it was in his name that the people of Japan will be unified. This was popularly known in history as Meiji Restoration and from the ranks of the lower samurai the new government was formed.The restrictions betwee n classes were abolished and the samurai class was encouraged to enter industry. Samurai were the Meiji architects; they were the one that provided the initiative and leadership that the merchants were not able to develop (Bellah, 1957). The economic change indeed propelled the change in Tokugawa Japan but the primary tool and reason remains political. The young leaders of the Meiji Japan were able to see the need for more national power that could be paralleled with the Western countries. By them we saw an uprising of an Asian power that shook the whole world in the upcoming years.Conclusion The history of Japan cannot be complete without knowing the samurai. Samurai were not just simple foot soldiers but eventually they became the unifiers and leaders of Japan. It was the warrior class that pacifies every people in Japan. We saw in the history of Japan how samurai took part in shaping every periodization in Japan. Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and finally Ieyasu Tokugawa were a n example of the role played by the samurai in the shaping of Japan. Interestingly though samurai held a very high position in the society and respected, their economic life was not that prestigious.Samurai were taught to be disciplined and simple in the way that they live. That is why they just depend on the stipend given to them by the daimyo and farmers. It was against in their morals to be associated in money. Aside from their financial mentality, samurai were expected to have loyalty more than everything. They were expected to give their very lives to their masters. This was where the control and monopoly of the samurai came from. This kind of social upbringing and rigidity in the life of the samurai cause him to be a man of ambition and achievement.Samurai should grab every opportunity to keep his word and morals. This is the kind of leaders the Meiji Restoration had and the secret to the success of the Japan. People were taught of discipline and loyalty. Morality that will se rve not only themselves but to properly embody the role they have for the society. By this it is clearly see how a samurai was created our time and this was shown in the very history of Japan. These warriors are not motivated by money or wealth and it is very obvious in their economic status. But these warriors were propelled by their sense of loyalty and morality.Works Cited Andressen, C. (2002). A Short History of Japan from Samurai to Sony. Australia: Allen & Unwin. Bebedict, R. (1946). The Chrysanthemum and the Sword: Pattern of Japanese Culture. Boston & Cambringe: Houghton Mifflin Company & Riverside Press. Bellah, R. N. (1957). Tokugawa Religion: The Values of Pre-Industrial Japan. Glencoe, Illinois: The Free Press & The Falcon's Wing Press. Ikegami, E. (1995). The Taming of the Samurai: Honorofic Individualism and the Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Kublin, H. (1973 ).Japan. ( Rev. Ed. ). Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Olenik, W. S. (2005). Ja pan: Its History and Culture (4th Ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill. Sansom, G. (1963). A History of Japan 1615-1867. Stanford, California: Stanfrd University Press. Tokugawa, T. (2009). The Edo Inheritance. Tokyo, Japan: Intertional House of Japan. Morton, W. S. ; Olenik, J. K. (2005). Japan: It’s History ; Culture (4th Ed. ). McGraw-Hill. Nakane, C. ; Oishi, S. (Eds. ) (1990). Tokugawa Japan: The Social and Economic Antecedents of Modern Japan. University of Tokyo Press.

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Job Analysis Interview

A job analysis is the purposeful, systematic process for collecting information on the important work-related aspects of a job. An employer needs as much information as they can get to put together a description of the job. The employer will need to observe, interview, and question the right person for the job that meets their requirements. This helps the analyst to collect the information that provides a thorough picture of the job and the duties of the job. Below are the results of a direct interview with Dale Root who is a driver for Weatherford International, LTD. Weatherford is one of the largest global providers of the advanced products and services. They have more than 900 service facilities in the world. Dale is a truck driver that has been employed with Weatherford for three years now. This interview was conducted on May, 10, 20011, at Weatherford facility in Lindsay, Oklahoma. Weatherford) Dale Root is known as the top driver of Weatherford, and is their mechanic also of all the vehicles there at the Lindsay, Oklahoma yard. The company offers advanced product and services that span the drilling, evaluation, completion, production and intervention cycles of oil and natural gas. Weatherford has over 1,000 services areas that are being used in the United States and Global area. (www. weatherford. com) Dale Root is directly involved with delivering the tools to all locations in Oklahoma, Texas, Louisiana, Arkansas area. Dale is also responsible for maintaining the mechanical issues with all the trucks, pickups, and the work over rigs. If a truck breaks down, they call Dale in to fix it. According to Dale, the company has come a long way in the analyst area since he first started with the company in 2008. At first they did not have a correct evaluation system in place for they were often losing their information for direction and location areas. All with the location time that the hands must be on location at a certain time or they lose the job. In closing of the interview with Dale, He told me that his supervisor name is Tony Springman, who is the main person that actually does the evaluation on the new hires. They are very thorough with the hiring process of the company for they do a back ground check on you to make sure that you have no felonies on your record and to make sure that the person don’t have no more than three moving violations on their record. In closing, there is so much information that is available about Weatherford International LTD. On the internet and you can contact the human resources in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma for more information about the company. Tony Springman is the person to get into contact with here at the Lindsay, Oklahoma yard for a job application and to start the process of getting hired on with Weatherford. An analysis really must be done as accurately as possible and must always be kept current.

Goals and Aspirations Essay

When I grow up and go off to college I would like to pursue a career in electrical engineering. One important answer to this question is more opportunity. A college education is very important to me. High school graduates today are unable to obtain the number of high-paying jobs that were once available. It serves as the gateway to better options and more opportunity. The importance of a college education is also emphasized because of the opportunity to gain valuable resources during your time. The more connections you make from professors or friends are made during your college career, the more options you will have when you begin your job search. This scholarship will certainly strengthen my opportunity to pay for my books, fees and programs which I may not be able to pay for. The scholarship can help me further my professional training and certification goals that I have set for myself and will in turn help me start a true career in electrical engineering. â€Å"A man who has nev er gone to school may steal from a freight car; but if he has a university education, he may steal the whole railroad.† -Theodore Roosevelt

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Challenges To Masculinity In World War 1

Challenges To Masculinity In World War 1 In the years 1914 to 1918 half of all men between the ages of 15-49 left behind their usual lives and jobs to toil on the battlefields and war related occupations during the First World War. Of 8 million men mobilised, some 1.7 million were wounded and 722,000 killed (Bourke, 1994). Sometimes referred to as the war to end all wars 5 million men served and survived and every frontline soldier experienced loss; it made an unforgettable impact on those who lived through it (Gregory, 1994). 7% of all men between the ages of 15-49 were killed in battle (Bourke, 1996). Men who fought in the trenches had memories of living with the dead, fears of death, close escapes of death, killing and bereavement. It is no wonder men were traumatised and broke down (Gregory, 1994). In this essay, I will show how this trauma challenged the idea of a man being masculine and how this is linked to challenges of ethnicity. Masculinity for many people is what differentiates men from women or femininity (Bour ke, 1996). Ethnicity is a social construction representing â€Å"the cultural values and norms which distinguish members of a given group from others† (Giddens, 2001:689). What was unbearable about modern warfare was its passivity in the midst of extreme dangers. Modern warfare was more psychologically difficult than warfare in the past because the men had to remain for days, weeks, months in a narrow trench exposed to constant dangers (Bourke, 2000). The trauma of world war one made society less secure, the period following the Great War is portrayed as the decline in Victorian values. The world wide economic depression meant fewer jobs and for those men who were unemployed found themselves no longer the breadwinner of the family (Bourke, 1996). Before world war one, those who were without limbs were mostly working class, for example children of the poor, adult factory workers, dock labourers and miners. However, after the war men who had been very fit had become war amputee s, for example 70% war amputees were aged younger than 30 but also 10% officers (Bourke, 1996). The war affected all classes. The trauma of world war one made all men from different classes who were amputees invisible in the labour market. Labourers had no incentive to give jobs to disabled men. This became very embarrassing for soldiers; advice and help from officials such as the Heritage School at Chailey recognised that there was little they could do to ease what must have been a difficult alteration for wounded men. Crippled soldiers had to be made in to men again, because they were often reduced to being children (Bourke, 1996). The war had a dissolving effect on the class structure of Britain, although still being a class-conscious society the emotional stress of war brought males classes closer together. Before the war, not having an arm or a leg meant you were poor but because of the war all classes were affected. Going out to work was an important milestone on the road to m anhood and a source of pride, there was a link between masculinity and â€Å"living wage† that required defending (Bourke, 1994). Although the majority of disabled veterans found employment, 100,000 disable ex servicemen were unemployed in 1920 (Gregory, 1994). It did not matter about your class anymore, during the war all men had to live in the trenches regardless. Those men who had suffered losing a limb during the war regardless of their class faced challenges to their masculinity because they were no longer the breadwinner of their families (Bourke, 1994).

Tuesday, August 13, 2019

How I Reduced My Ecological Footprint Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

How I Reduced My Ecological Footprint - Essay Example The reduction of the electricity levels that I consume also plays an important part in conserving the energy in our environment (Beder 13). Before attending the environmental class, I usually left electrical devices plugged on even when they were not in use. I also used drying machines despite there being enough sunlight to dry my clothes. These activities resulted in the wastage of energy resources at my disposal. After learning from my mistakes, I changed from most of my previous habits and adopted behaviors that enhanced my endeavors in conserving nature. Whenever I am using an electrical device at home or in school, I always leave it unplugged to ensure that   energy is conserved. The adoption of substitute energy sources such as wind, lunar and other forms of natural energy may be used to preserve energy. I have changed from using systems that consume fossil fuels when performing my routine activities. I am an active campaigner for the reduction of carbon emissions in the envi ronment by advocating for use of natural forms of energy. To reduce the emissions I produce as a result of the lighting in my house, I have adopted the use of halogen lighting. This is because it does not produce harmful emissions and is efficient in saving energy. These practices enable me to ensure reduction of the effects of my ecological footprint.  As a young child, I was greatly fascinated by the people who worked for lumbering factories. I really admired watching them cutting down trees and was aspiring to join them in the future. I viewed timber as a very important commodity that facilitates man’s development. Little did I know that the trees were only being cut down and there was nobody to plant new ones to replenish forests. The presence of trees ensures people live in clean and safe environments. This is because they help to filter out