Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Case 5-2: Lexsteel Corporation

What should the controller of Lexsteel do in order to address the potential problems within the corporation? †¢The controller became aware of the potential problems with the accounts payable system because of the discussion made with the external auditors. †¢Each branch manager is given the authority to order materials and issue emergency purchase orders directly to the vendors. †¢Physical counts of raw materials are not performed since there is a cost-effective computerized perpetual inventory system. †¢COMPUTER RESOURCES: The host computer mainframe at corporate headquarters is linked to the computers at each branch locations. Data transmission occurs between leased telephone lines between host computer and branch offices wherein it is maintained in an integrated database. The software also allows flexibility for managing user access and editing data input meaning there is no control over the software for it allows data editing without the proper authorization given. †¢PURCHASING PROCEDURES: The production orders and appropriate bills of materials needed are generated by the host computer at corporate headquarters. While the purchase orders for raw materials are generated by the purchasing function and is mailed to the vendors which contain an instruction to the vendor that the materials should be directly delivered to the manufacturing plant. There is a control between the generation of production orders needed and the purchase orders issued to the vendor but it is not an exception in the occurrence of fraud. At receipt, the manufacturing plant examines and verifies the count against the packing slip and transmits the receiving data to the accounts payable at corporate headquarters. Even though there is a proper segregation between custody and recording, still fraud may occur because of collusion. Also, each branch manager is given the authority to order materials and issue emergency purchase orders directly to the vendors. Fraud may also occur if collusion will be made by the branch manager and the vendor, with that proper control is a must. Since the company employs a cost effective computerized perpetual inventory system, physical counts of raw materials are not performed. With that, the generation of production orders and purchase orders may be deceived because the count of raw materials that are needed are not matched with the proper physical count on its ending inventory. †¢ACCOUNTS PAYABLE PROCEDURES: Vendor invoices are mailed directly to the corporate headquarters and entered by the accounts payable personnel when received. This often occurs before the branch offices transmit the receiving data so the recorded vendor invoices are not properly matched with the receiving report. Uncertainties of amount may exist. The checks and the payment listings are made by the accounts payable function and are transmitted to the treasurer’s office for signature and mailing to the payee. After validation, payment listings are returned to the accounts payable section for filing. In here, there is no proper control in the preparation and validation of checks and payment listings for the verification of it is not done which may result into collusion and creation of dummy payee made by the treasurer’s office and the accounts payable function.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Digital Learning Environment Essay

In the statement â€Å"Recently, there were two recent cover stories in Time Magazine: Their conclusion was that children today are different. In fact, based on what we now know from the neurosciences and psychological sciences, what we’re now beginning to understand is that children today are FUNDAMENTALLY different than we are in the way they think, in the way they access, absorb, interpret, process and use information, and in the way they view, interact, and communicate in the modern world because of their experiences with digital technologies. If this is the case, it holds profound implications for all of us personally and professionally.† I truly believe it’s true. I feel that we are surrounded by digital devices that were not there when I was young. There is new technology that comes out every day and eventually I believe that will be on only way of life in everything we do. I do feel that today’s learners have a different way of learning than we did in the past. I feel there are so many different factors that have changed how today children learns, thinking, etc. I believe the main factor is all the new technology that comes out daily. I feel that technology has been taken for granted for many different ways especially in the learning environment. For example, when I was in high school I had to go to the library to check out books to complete a research paper but in today’s world students just type what they are looking for on the computer and the web provides the answer. I feel it has taken away the experience of how to research something. People can learn so much more when they actually have to do the leg work on researching than just sitting on the couch and typing up the question and the computer does the work. I believe that it can show some laziness on the student’s part because it is others that have done the work and not them. The whole digital world has taken away a person’s creativity, personality (their own work), etc. I feel that having hands on and thinking skills expands their thought process and creative process where they utilizing their own thoughts and not anyone else’s. I feel at times that I would utilize the physical act of learning something instead of them researching on computers websites, etc. I also would have them use their own thoughts and try to learn to have an open mind to take in suggestions from other people. I will ensure that I give them the opportunity to learn from their own experiences with the help and guidance from myself and other adults. I feel this will get to use their own knowledge in cases where they don’t have the digital resources due to batteries going dead or don’t have the access.

Annotated Refernces list final

Organizational and media stress among professional football players: Testing an Achievement Goal Theory Model This article includes a study that was to investigate media and coach- athletes stress that would be experienced by the professional football players by examining or testing the goal theory model. The study was about 82 football players that had to complete some questionnaires. In conclusion the study shows that the coaches of the professional football players are advised to reduce the emphasis on performance that would reduce the stress.The information in this article is objective because it was all based on some issues that happened with professional football players. The goal of this article would be showing how much these players receive. Hint the article would be useful for me in writing the paper. The article relates very much to my topic which is about stress for athletes, so I will be able to write more about what causes these athletes to have stress. Stress-Related B reathing Problems: An Issue for Elite Swimmers The article talks about a problem that elite swimmers might have stress because of breathing problems.The article showed a study that number of swimmers who have this problem is increasing. The study in the article showed 24 elite swimmers in two different swim clubs in Norway. The study explains that swimmers Will have breathing problems when they have higher intensity in their workouts and going to school above that would cause more stress in their daily life. I believe that that information is all objective because the article showed a study that occurred to some swimmers.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Information Technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words - 2

Information Technology - Essay Example It raises questions such as the ability of consumers to make their own products as well as opportunities like cheap and accurate product development. The economic case for the Internet and all related technologies can be depicted in the collection of huge data made possible by the advanced computing and networked capabilities. This information published in the OECD website is just one of the materials that report the increased attention on the subject as a part of modern organizational focus as reflected in actual practice and strategy. Simply put, big data is the humungous information collected, stored and analyzed in complex database management systems. The paper effectively outlined how strong computing power allows these activities to be accomplished in a short time, using meager resources (OECD, 2015). The reader, therefore, has clear understanding about how organizations are able to gain insights about consumer and market behavior so that they are able to respond accordingly, especially in the area of product development and consumer relationship management. All in all, big data is seen as a major factor influencing the decisions of organizations and their management and this material supports it. In addition, it covers almost all operational aspects from product development, human resource management to logistics. DeMetz, A., 2015. The #1 Thing IT Managers Would Do To Strengthen Their Information Security Policies. Forbes. [online]. Available at: . [Accessed 17 March 2015]. This article has identified an unexpected top threat to an organizations information security: its employees. The idea is that employee activities pose as much danger to information security as external forces (DeMetz 2015). This is important primarily because the conventional cyber

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Reflections on Food Solution in My Neighborhood Coursework

Reflections on Food Solution in My Neighborhood - Coursework Example Encourage schools to purchase healthy food for the students from local growers that are known to be sustainable farmers †¢ Good food offerings are unaffordable †¢ National school meal program to supply healthy meals to children †¢ Teach people about how they can preserve, cook, and share food for the benefit of those that cannot afford. †¢ Food wastage †¢ Create food awareness through environmental studies and community Arts movements that advocate for social change regarding food conservation †¢ Unhealthy, poorly cooked and cold lunch program †¢ Encourage the Good Food Cafà © that offers a healthy hot lunch program for school kids †¢ Malnutrition and hunger is rampant due to inadequate food supplies and poverty. †¢ The government should create school meal programs to provide children with constant food supply. †¢ Encourage diverse culinary tastes for multicultural population to honor the different cultural rituals †¢ Kinderga rten children change their attitude towards fresh fruits and vegetables †¢ Encourage children to eat fresh fruits and vegetables more than processed and canned food. †¢ Collaborate with food scholars and non profit private and public organizations to exhume, document and link people with their food practices to determine where health deficiency occurs. †¢ Form organizations such as Food-share that supplies fresh, nutritious, and affordable fruits and vegetables to children and adults every month.

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Lab Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 1

Lab - Essay Example Moreover, a highly concentrated solution is, the more it absorbs light, and the less transmitted light through the solution is. This also implies that, the concentration of a particular solution is directly proportional to the rate of absorbance, a fact that Beer-Lambert’s Law has proved. The Law states that the quantity of light that is absorbed by a given sample is dependent on the concentration of that sample (C), the species absorbing, the wavelength of the light used together with the thickness of the sample: A = Â £bC (where A is absorbance, Â £ is a constant when the identity of the absorbing species and the wavelength of the light utilized are not altered, b is the solution’s thickness in the cuvette container, and C is the sample’s concentration)(Bauer et al.110).By utilizing a standard curve(y=mx+b),where x-values show various concentrations of the same sample with y values showing the absorbance of a given wavelength, it can be stated that the concen tration is directly proportional to the absorbance, which initially was proved by Beer-Lambert Law(Bauer et al.110). The objective of this lab experiment was establishing the percentage Mass of Copper (II) ion (Cu2+) in a sample of ore by using Calorimetry technique. The percentage of Mass can be defined as the mass of a definite element over the total mass of all elements multiplied by 100%(Brown et al.85).Through establishment of a standard for the copper nitrate compound and utilizing the knowledge of Beer-Lambert Law, the % mass of the copper in the ore was attained. Determination of the 8.5 mL of nitric acid would dissolve the copper compound Cu (NO3)2* 2.5 H2O was done in the first week of the lab experiment. In addition 8 serial dilutions were carried out by adding an increasing quantity (beginning with 8.5mL) of nitric acid (HNO3) to 4.5 g of Cu (NO3)2 * 2.5H2O.The quantity of red light ((ÃŽ »=635nm) absorbed by every diluted solution was established using a calorimeter with Lab Quest

Friday, July 26, 2019

Positive Communication Climate Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Positive Communication Climate - Essay Example This can determine if they are willing to communicate when another time for interaction between them comes. Positive communication has the power to attract people to others. People, therefore, must learn how to interact. It concerns the importance of the improvement of social, personal and professional relationships. This paper will review such importance, and how it affects people around the world today. There is need to have established guidelines that help create a wonderful communication climate. This means that without these guidelines there would probably be limited interactions among people in the world. Thus, personal relationships would be affected. Social understanding among people would deteriorate and professional relationships would be jeopardized in this case (Adler, 2010). This has been the case for many decades. It may probably be the case for many more decades to come. One of the communication guidelines that exist is trust. For people to live harmoniously there must be trust. This is what the main relationship’s foundation is based on. Professionally, an organization must have trust among its employees so that everything can get done in a proper way. This is the only way that the organization can grow and withstand the test of time. Trust enables one to understand that the other party in the organization can act as promised and hold up the end of the bargain (Adler, 2010). Openness can enable the communication climate to be much better. This is because no secrets that may cause harm to others are being held back. It is where the disclosure of information is very open (Adler, 2010). It ensures that people are at liberty to protect each other from harm with the full disclosure of information. The openness allows the expression of feelings in any relationship, which is quite important. In personal relationships, openness can determine whether it will grow and flourish or die down. Being supportive is another way to improve communication am ong people. The decisions made in everyday life can be made much easier if support is received from those around the decision maker. This support system can create avenues for all the rest to be heard. They can use this avenue to put some of their suggestions across. Information is better exchanged in a supportive communication channel (Adler, 2009). This means that, professionally, support can lead to the creation of the perfect working environment. In a personal relationship, the advantages brought on by being supportive from either party ensure the relationship’s growth. This is because each party looks up to the other party for support in everything they do. If they do not agree on something, they have to find an amicable solution to the presented situation (Adler, 2009). Investment from all parties involved in any relationship must be made at all times. This provides better understanding among everyone. In professional relationships, the time taken in an organization is tantamount in knowing what the organization needs to get better. Personal relationships need investment to ensure that all parties get what they desire. Without it, there is a risk that the parties involved may feel unappreciated. This may lead them to be unresponsive. Being unresponsive can ruin any communication climate that may have existed in the relationship (Kanu, 2010). Professionally, an organization can let an unresponsive employee go. So can a partner in a personal relat

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Global Trade Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Global Trade - Essay Example th reference to the guardian, the governments will be in a position to pass international restrictions that protects domestic industries (The Guardian, pp. 1-3). Furthermore, the governments will be promoting national security. It will be a means of implementing a foreign policy targeting enemy states. According to Reimer, by intervening in trade, the governments are trying to adhere to the strategic trade policy (Reimer, pp. 1-50). By encouraging domestic employment, governments may raise their tariffs to influence trade. Additionally, they may use the strategic policies to mitigate influences of big corporations. It will be assisting growing companies domestically. Governments may raise taxes on goods that trade with enemy country to implement their foreign policies (Reimer, pp. 1-50). Trading in the past mostly dwelt in trade politics. Nowadays international trade has advanced and trade laws have replaced trade politics. Additionally, trade has transformed gradually till nowadays countries trade with a body called World Trade Organization supervising the activities. According to Pauwelny, trading system has developed from power based to rules based trade (Pauwelyn, pp. 1-20) Poverty is an issue that affects current global trading. The major cause of poverty is structural adjustments by the World Bank. Additionally, the loans to third world country are another issue in trade. The loans undermine developments and reduce trade

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Drunk Drivers Should Be Imprisoned on the First Offense Essay

Drunk Drivers Should Be Imprisoned on the First Offense - Essay Example Drunk driving must be dealt with a stern approach and one of the reasons behind dealing with the same is through punishing the first time offenders. This leads to a chaotic situation where imprisonment seems to be the only way forward. Imprisonment is therefore a grave reality which shall open the eyes of the offenders once and for all and it ought to bring solace to the pedestrians and other drivers on the road that have made no mistake to be present there. Moving ahead, it has been seen that drunk driving leads to problems of magnanimous effects as this has been researched upon through studies and evidence that has been discerned to date. Hence imprisonment seems to be the only harsh reality that can dawn upon an individual when he is doing the undoable, i.e. driving whilst being drunk. If the offenders know beforehand that they would be imprisoned for a set duration of time, they would abstain from getting into such realms in the first place. Also it would mean that the people wou ld have little choice than to forego this habit of theirs forever. These offenders would know that if they commit something wrong in the future, they would not be spared and hence their driving license would also be canceled as a result of the same. (Lobmann, 2002) is of the view that they will not be allowed to drive a vehicle until their license gets active again and hence this would serve as a deterrent to curb the menace of drunk driving all over the world. It is understandable that the problems which this individual will face under such realms would be immense but then again these are needed to tackle this issue once and for all. The accidents have increased all over the world. This is because people are in a rush to make it to their desired destinations. Also the fact that drunk driving cases have increased drastically. People just do not care if they have to make it to their destinations while they are in a state of being drunk. What they forget is the fact that drunk driving makes them feel dizzy and drowsy which is indeed quite a problem for the other pedestrians and drivers on the road. The latter feel that they are at the direct mercy of these drunk drivers and that they would have to do it themselves in the case of safety on the road. Wagner (2011) asserts what is even more discouraging is the fact that some people believe in drinking whilst driving which is doubly dangerous for just about everyone. However precautions need to be taken by the authorities to make sure that drunken individuals do not hit the roads. No matter what happens, it would be a good starting point to put them behind bars for a certain amount of time and revoke their licenses to curb this problem once and for all. From a personal example, I have seen cases when drunken individuals have come on to the road and created absolute mayhem. This has meant that they have lost their control completely and hit different vehicles on the road and even the innocent pedestrians. I have seen accidents so severe that I have not been able to sleep properly after that. What is needed however is an understanding that drunk driving is one form of evil that must be avoided as much as possible because it creates trouble for the people on and off the road. The property that is destroyed under such domains is another aspect that needs to be given proper significance as well. In essence, the drunken drivers should be told to spend some time in

Human Thought Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words

Human Thought - Essay Example Reflective practice is a relative issue here, and there are basically two different dimensions to reflective practice, and two models in particular which are involved - the Johns' model of reflective practice, and the Schon's model of reflective practice. The aim of this paper is to discuss human thought in all of its complexity, in particular to address the matter of critical thinking and how it manifests itself in different areas of life. As well to be discussed here is the issue of reflective practice and the models that are most significant. By discussing all of this as well as any and all other key and related issues, we will be able to come to a much more informed and knowledgeable understanding on the subject of human thought as a whole, as well as on the matters of critical thinking and reflective practice and how these two subjects are related to the psychological aspect of human thought. This is what will be dissertated in the following. Human thought is a psychological issue which is incredibly complex, and to which many different subjects are contained within. In more recent years, a new discipline has arisen, which argues that human behavior can be understood in terms of evolutionary processes, and critical thinking is considered as being an incredibly intricate and significant part to human thought overall. In fact, critical thinking is something which is considered as having an on-going concern with the problems that are inherent in human thinking, and "It includes, but is not exhausted by the mental process of analyzing or evaluating information, particularly statements or propositions that people have offered as true. It includes, but is not limited to, a process of reflecting upon the meaning of statements, examining the offered evidence and reasoning, and forming judgments about the facts" (Wikipedia, 2007). The process of critical thinking, then, is one which involves acquiring information as well as evalu ating it in order to reach a well-justified conclusion or answer. As well, a large part of critical thinking really goes above and beyond that of informal logic and includes a certain assessment of beliefs an identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, and so on. It is considered that "Critical thinking is very important, as it allows purposes, questions, information, inferences, concepts, assumptions, implications, points of view, beliefs, and situations to be analyzed, evaluated and restructured, decreasing the risk of acting on a false premise. The loss of this faculty through injury, intoxication, denial, narrow-mindedness or subversion can lead to a greater risk of one making a fatal error" (Cartwright, 2003). There are basically two major aspects in particular which are involved within the area of critical thinking, and they are: a set of cognitive skills, intellectual standards, and traits of mind; and the ability and intellectua l commitment to use those structures to improve thinking and guide behavior. It is incredibly important to realize the fact that critical

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Compare and contrast of the knight and wife of baths tale from the Essay

Compare and contrast of the knight and wife of baths tale from the canterbury tales - Essay Example The family institution is grounded by marriage; the institution of two individuals or partners with an aim of procreating and nurturing the wellbeing of their children while observing the set standards by the society. Romance on the other hand strengthens the marriage institution as a subset of love; a virtue necessary for the coexistence of family members and society at large. Majority of the society members will always look forward to love from family members and society at large and romance from their partners with which not only serves as the basic course of occupations but basis of identification and a sense of belonging. Romance and love comes with responsibilities for each of the stakeholders which vary with gender and the aspirations of the specific unit that is the family or the society (Heng, 2). The Wife of Bath and the Knight’s tales revolve around romance, love, relationships and the responsibilities that come with each set of relationships; appreciative and punit ive and this paper will seek to compare and contrast the two tales with reference to thematic presentation, morals and responsibilities, love and romance. Socially, the two tales bring out the importance of love and romance to the survival of the society in that lack of romance and love can lead to social vices which have long term repercussions to the errant and the society. For instance, in the Wife of Bath’s tale a knight who had raped a fair young maiden is faced with death penalty according to the society’s set standards and which sets path for the repercussions he faces in the tale. In the Knight’s tale the importance of love and romance in for social identity and sense of belonging is brought out whereby cousins Arcite and Palamon; who were imprisoned by Theseu, the Duke of Athens after inventions against Creon, falls in love with the same girl, Emelye. The power and value relationships, romance, love and the quest for identity and sense of belonging are brought out in the hate that these two cousins develop for each other over the girl and the â€Å"mass judicial tournament† that they engage in all for the winner to give the girl a hand in marriage. Though the scenarios in the two tales differ in the perspective of the responsibilities, they converge to one point of romance and love and the need for identity. For instance, in the Wife of Bath’s tale responsibilities assigned to the knight are punitive compared to the Knight’s tale which though punitive in the sense of mass tournament, they are appreciative in that the end results are explicitly defined. Thematically the two tales differ in that the Wife of Bathcritically evaluates the value of romance and details aspects of society’s aspirations such as antifeminism, behavior in marriage, economics of love and female dominance unlike the Knight’s tale which focuses much on romance. For instance, in the Wife of Bath, when the Knight was about to be prosecuted, Queen Guinevere intercedes and passes the judgment instead of the king; a move that introduced the aspects of female dominance, sought out to bring out the role of women in the society and their influence in matters of love and marriage, and sexuality themes. For example, when the knight was asked to discover for the queen what women desire most, for exchange of death penalty he was to receive; it is

Monday, July 22, 2019

College football vs Nfl Essay Example for Free

College football vs Nfl Essay Many compare the National Football League (NFL) with college football but the two are not extremely similar and should never be compared. Yes, besides a few minor rule changes the NFL and college football are the same game; but there is much more to football then the rules. College football is better than the NFL for a wide variety of reasons. First, there exists more passion in college football all around the sport. Passion cannot be measured in anyway but can be observed and understood by the fans, coaches, and sports community. Players care more about the game and less about money, while the fans have great passion for the university they attend or attended. The lack of an influence money has on the game is admirable. Also, tradition is so vast in college football a game day experience cannot be compared with those of the NFL. The special rivalry games and in stadium events makes college football great. Rivalries, passion, playing rules, and timing are few of the reasons why college football is better than the NFL. Along with great activities like tailgating, the wonderful scheduling, the entertainment, and the comeback friendly rules college football has the best case for why it is levels above the NFL. Passion is sought after in all sports, and is the most apparent in college athletics. Money determines everything in pro football and the large impact it has is just too obvious. The same cannot be said for college football. The great passion and emotion seen in players and coaches, and their loyalty to their team helps make college football a lovable game. The football team at a university represents the town, the state, and what the community stands for. College football players are said to be passionate, play hard, hard workers, and fearless. NFL players are most known for complaining and not wanting to be hit hard. There is passion in every play and intensity like no other in college football. It is just a drag watching the NFL because most of the time there is no passion, its just guys playing for that next paycheck (Fisher). The fact that the student athletes play for opportunity and the love of the game is invigorating to all sport fans. College football has been said to be more pure of a game. This means they play for the chance to make the league, and are about the game. Another reason passion is more reflected in college football is the lack of salary related hold outs. This refers to the many major star athletes who have large contract disputes and skip on camp and all team activities until they are paid more money. Players risk team success for selfish personal reasons. Prime examples of a player negatively affecting a team with a hold out are Albert Haynesworth, Terrell Owens, Michael Crabtree, Maurice Jones-Drew, Chris Johnson, and many more. These players put personal motives over team goals; it is inferred that the star athletes prefer money over team success. There has never been one single hold out in college football. Historically players in contract years have shown just a little more effort to ensure they make a few extra dollars when their pay days come around (Eliesen). Stats go up and so does the amount of work put in. This shows that players give more effort when money is on the line. The impact money has on the NFL makes college football that much better. Another issue with the money influence of the NFL is players will switch teams for more money, wins, or a bigger market. Not just some players, all players. In college you can transfer for academic or personal reasons but there are consequences. In 2010-11, 6. 4 percent of Division I student-athletes transferred from one four-year school to another four-year school. Included in that figure are 969 football student-athletes. All of those student-athletes were required to sit out a year of competition (NCAA). In the NFL it is expected that a player would turn their back on their team and city for more money or a better personal opportunity. In college it is discouraged, frowned upon, and penalized against. The players passion for the game, loyalty to their teams, and absents of holdouts and other money related issues are the start of a long list of reasons why college football is better than the NFL. The passion shows the college players are about the game, not the money. The tradition of college football is unlike that of any sport. The significance of it is immeasurable. To start college football has outstanding rivalry games. They are better than the NFL rivalry games simply because they have existed longer, are closer games, in a larger variety, and the fans and schools hate each other more. Classic examples include Army versus Navy, the iron bowl, Ohio State versus Michigan, USC versus Notre Dame, Miami versus FSU, The red river rivalry, the civil war, the dual in the dessert, the world’s largest cocktail party, LSU versus Alabama, and several others. Compare that with Dallas against Washington; the best rivalry in the NFL. Not a comparison. Every team in college football has a rival. Iowa State has Kansas State. Indiana has Illinois. Baylor has Texas Tech. Cincinnati has Louisville. It’s not what you think of when you think Auburn/Alabama, Ohio State/Michigan and Texas/Oklahoma, but even the lesser-known powers have rivals that riles up the fan bases. The NFL? I challenge you to name the Carolina Panthers’ top rival (Wilson). The atmosphere surrounding the towns and the great rivalry games out perform the NFL’s weak rivalry match ups. Next, fans have more to route for in college. The fact that the students and alumni get to support the place they graduated from cannot be matched. For NFL fans most of them root for the citys team you were born in. For college football fans the team you cheer for could be across the nation because you had a family member go there or your family has always cheered for them. For college football fans it doesnt matter what city you live in (Fisher). Good examples of great tradition are Oregon’s uniforms, dotting the I in Ohio, Chief Osceola, war eagle, Howards rock, the dog UGA, and the play like a champion today sign in South Bend. Literally, 100 more traditions could be named. Traditions such as those just dont exist in the NFL. There isnt the same level of tradition in the pro game (Killoren). Stadiums, fight songs, bands, and the college campus on game day, pep rallies, are all things that are just not seen in professional football. The tradition in college football is evident and changes the game completely. Most importantly the strong and vast group of rivalry games in college makes the NFL division games appear as friendly competition. A main reason why college football is better than the NFL is because in college the timing in all around better. By the timing, I mean the rules that influence the time and the scheduling. College football starts a week earlier which means over 120 division one college games have been played before the NFL starts. College football has more games in general and starts off football season right. Next, is Saturdays are better for watching and playing football than Sundays. Nobody wants to go to work the day after a crazy game. People need Sunday to relax after a crazy tailgating and game experience. To me, theres nothing better than going to bed on Friday night knowing that you have nothing to do on Saturday except watch college football. Even if you find a few hours to watch your favorite NFL team, you still have it hanging over your head that its back to work in the morning. That feeling always tends to take the wind out of my sails (FanNation). Who wants to be out late on a Sunday night at a prime time game? How about Saturday? There is a big difference between the two. During bowl season we get to see 35 prestigious match ups of team with winning records in solid football games over a 23 day period. Right over the holidays when everyone has school and work off there is football on every day. This is set up nicely for viewers. Seniors get a last chance to represent themselves and their school in the bowl game that they have worked so hard to earn. Lastly, college has comeback friendly rules that the NFL do not have. Stopping of the clock on a first down, one foot in bounds for a catch, chains must be set before clock starts, and clock stopping all game when you get out of bounds keep college games entertaining and help you see more action. According to a Wall Street Journal study of four games from week 16, the average NFL game features just 10 minutes 43 seconds of action (Chase). The comebacks that have determined champions and the outcome of high profile games are because of the comeback friendly rule book of college football. College football is more entertaining than the NFL for many reasons but bowl season, the comeback friendly rules, Saturdays over Sundays, and the extra week of football are just some vital examples. The pregame activities, tailgating, the more logical football rules such as overtime standards, and ESPNs outstanding coverage give college an extra edge on professional football. College game day travels to the biggest game of the week and perform a 3 hour special on campus live in front of an audience with different guest stars, storylines, and gimmicks each week. Hands down NFL Countdown cant compete with College Gameday (Fisher). Also, college goal line which updates all the score nationwide is very popular around the country. In college football the sport is played the right way. If a player hits the ground he is down, in the NFL he can get back up and run if not touched. This leads to many missed calls and slows down play. The overtime rules are better in college because you can’t tie. Yes, in the NFL there is the terrible possibility of a tie. Also, each time gets a chance and the better team is awarded the victory. In the NFL it’s more about the coin flip than the play. Parties on campus, pep rallies, and fun halftime events like the famous Dr. Pepper challenge are great add ons to college football. The college life sparks parties and pep rallies. Some schools even cancel classes the day before a big game. Students camp out to get tickets and great scenes like that are noticed all around the country. The weekend gives students a break. What more would students want to do than party and route on their schools football team. Lastly, tailgating is bigger in college football. Fans have all of the next day to relax so they enjoy their tailgating. Only 30 percent of the tailgaters actually make it inside the stadium. People do not tailgate a week before for an NFL game. College students start tailgating that Sunday or Monday after that last game they just went too (Fisher). College fans take tailgating very serious and make a 3 hour game into a week event in which they can relax, watch football, eat good food, and reunite with friends and family. The activities around college football separate it from the old boring games on Sunday. College football has passion, traditions, entertainment, and an incredible environment that the NFL lacks. These reasons were choose from a list of 200 reasons college football is better. Upsets, unpredictability, cheer leaders, the Heisman, coaching dynasties, the spread offense, uniforms, new programs, and other reason were not even discussed because college football has such a huge variety of great attributes. This makes college football more appealing to the fans and viewers. Understand that all these reasons build on the case of why college football beats the NFL. Yes, the players are less talented when they are younger. It should have been made clear that the game is about more than this though. The college players do not only care about money. Love of the game, the tradition, the entertainment, and the rules are a few of the prominent reasons college football is better. However, Most of these reasons cannot be based of scientific facts or stats. The reasons listed are based on what is the best game to watch and support. A personal opinion and judgment is what makes this argument worth demonstrating. It cannot be proven through facts and data but there are numerous reasons that help show the point that is trying to be made. All the evidence is there and all that is left to do is choose what reasons makes college football better than the NFL. There are many to choose from.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Understanding The Growth Theory By Solow Economics Essay

Understanding The Growth Theory By Solow Economics Essay Robert Solow was born of a Jewish family on August 23, 1924 in Brooklyn. Fortunate with the opportunity to attend public schools, he had a strong academic foundation along with with motivation and mentoring he was awarded a scholarship to attend Harvard University in 1940. During his freshman year at Harvard he chose sociology and anthropology as his majors with a minor in elementary economics. At the end of 1945 Robert Solow decided to serve in the US army and later returned to Harvard in 1945. The depression at the time strongly influenced him to study the way the economy actually worked and after returning from the army he decided to switch gears and studied economics. At Harvard he was an assistant to Wassily Leontief producing the first set of capital coefficient for the output and input model sparking his interest in statistics and probability models which lead him to Columbia University for a concentration in statistics. About the same time he was also offered a position to lecture economics and statistics at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) which he accepted and overtime his fascination leaned more with macro economics. For 40 years Solow worked closely with Paul Samuelson and together they developed numerous work together such as: Balanced Growth under Constant Returns to Scale, (1953), Theory of Capital (1956) and A Complete Capital Model Involving Heterogeneous Capital Goods. In 1961, Robert Solow won the John Bates Clark Award which is given to someone under 40 years who have made a major contribution to economic thought and knowledge. His continued efforts and passion for macro economics resulted to him winning the Nobel Prize in 1987 for his analysis in economic growth. Over the years Solow has continued to be a prominent figure as an economist, his theory is thought all over the world from government to his theory thought in schools. The study of the factors which permit production growth and increased welfare has been a central feature in economic research for many years. Robert M. Solows prize recognizes his exceptional contributions in this area. This paper will discuss the major contributions Robert Solow made to economics in an A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth (1956), the influences for his analysis and its relevance in understanding how the economy works. Understanding the Solow growth theory is a challenge due to the number of models that he incorporates to explain growth theory. The basic model focuses on the accumulation of capital after which Solow incorporates new factors such as population growth and technology in order to show the changed result in comparison to the basic model. To aid in development of his Growth Theory, Robert Solow addressed the specifics concerning the growth of an advance industrial economy, this was first developed by Nicholas Kaldor. Kaldor has six characteristics for the economy, four of which Solow focused mainly to development the Solow model. Real output grows at a constant rate. Capital Stock grows at a constant rate Real growth and capital stock are likely to be the same Profit rates show a horizontal trend with the exception of changes in effective demand. The first three characteristics describe when an economy is in the steady state. To expand on this definition the steady state as described by Robert Solow is constant growth and capital stock. In an article, A Contribution to the theory of economic growth (1956) Solow growth model represented an addition to the Harod- Domar Model which explained growth patterns in terms of savings and capital. The main differentiation between his model and the Harrod-Domar model lay in Solows assumption that wages could adjust to keep labor fully employed. The Solow Model is neo-classical and as a results focuses primarily on the supply side. This implies that as long the supply of a good increases then economic growth can be accomplished. In this aspect it differs from the Keynesian models which focus on the demand side of the economy in areas such as: unemployment and inflation. The supply side In Solows model follows the following assumptions: One good in production with no change in technology and two factors of production, capital (K) and labor (L) deriving the following equation Y =F (K, L). The demand side for the Solow model assumes that output demand is equal to consumption and therefore there is no disposable income in the economy. Y= C + S Thus far the model describes a stagnant economy and Solow introduces dynamic factors in the model to show capital accumulation which are investment which increases the capital stock and depreciation which decreases capital stock. The saving rate in this model represents the tradeoff between consumption and investment. This means, what is not consumed is saved in the economy; this therefore increases capital stock growth or capital accumulation in the economy. In the active economy in the Solow model the production changes and is represented by the equation Y=F (K, S, à ¢Ã‹â€ Ã¢â‚¬Å¡, k0) meaning output is a function of capital, savings, depreciation and capital stock. By utilizing the capital stock increases output in different periods but at some point the economy comes to a steady state as described by the Solow Model. The steady state is accomplished when output and capital are in equilibrium. It also implies that the economy will cease to grow so there is no change in capital at that point. Furthermore an economy in a positive steady state does not move from that point therefore this can also be considered as the equilibrium point The variables listed above can be divided into two variables exogenous which comprises of savings depreciation and capital stock and endogenous which are capital, income and investments. The model shows that increased savings shifts increases investments which impacts the steady rate causing it to shift also. This activity illustrates that higher savings in an economy means that there is higher capital stock thus leading to higher steady state per worker. Therefore in the economy one need to know that is the optimum level of savings is necessary to get to maximize steady state which is known was the golden rule. To recap, the steady state can be referred to as long run equilibrium in the economy and savings is critical in the model because it shows that by increasing savings the steady state can shift upward which asserts higher level of capital stock per worker. The concept of golden rule was also incorporated in the Solows Growth Theory but prior to that the golden rule was a concept by Jon von Neumann and later in the work of Edmund Phelps. In Solows Growth Theory, he makes the assumption that policy makers will consequently determine a savings rate that will maximize consumption per worker referring to it as the golden level of capital accumulation. Robert Solow did not stop here with his theory he went on further to introduce population growth in his dynamic model which also means that the labor force is growing as well. What Solow is illustrating is the effect of this exogenous factor on the population. Therefore the capital stock will be divided thinly across the increasing population. Since this increase in population is decreasing the capital stock this indicates there is a negative effect on income per worker. Solow then adds technology to the model, technology as described by Solow can improve efficiency of production and this means that there is an increase in output ultimately leading to the sustained growth in the economy. At this stage in the model, Solow uses a new production function to describe the economy Y=F (K, L, E, à ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬) this means that output is a function of capital, labor, efficiency and effective worker for this economy. Solow goes on to describe what is meant by an efficient worker and this is characterized by knowledge, familiarity and ability. Output can consequently increase by the efficiency levels of workers. Efficiency in this model per effective worker can move the steady state equilibrium where capital stock per worker constant. As a result, with technological progress in this model the capital stock per worker is growing at the technology rate even in the steady state due to efficiency in the economy. We can see that even if capital is not growing in the steady state capital per effective worker is at the rate of technology. In addition, this also asserts that output per worker is also growing at a rate of technology. Combined, total output and capital stock are both growing when the two variables population and technology are present. The Solow Model therefore shows that technological progress in the economy explains sustained economic growth in the context of living standards per worker.

Enrons Collapse and Its Corporate Culture

Enrons Collapse and Its Corporate Culture According to Albert Camus A man without ethics is a wild beast loosed upon this world At first sight, Enron looks like a mega-size illustration of the bad apple among the ripes ones. It projected itself as financial of Business Ethics. On December 2.2001 Enron Corp. Filed the largest bankruptcy in U.S history due to many unethical issues. The Enron Scandal shocked the world. Enron had an overwhelming aura of pride and carried with it the deep-seated belief that its people could handle increasing risk without any consequences. The culture promoted greed and focused on how much money could be made for executives. For, example Enrons compensation plans seemed less concerned with generating profits for shareholders than with enriching Companys wealth. Enrons corporate culture reportedly encouraged profiteering. The Enron collapse has sent shockwaves all over the financial world and raised serious questions regarding corporate governance. The Enron bankruptcy is becoming the most famous and highly publicized bankruptcy case in history. There are numbers of unethical issues that contribute Enron to its bankruptcy. They are as follows-: Improper Accounting: One of the major reason behind of its bankruptcy was improper accounting system. (Enrons lawyers in august 2001)The company used corrupt accounting measures to make their profits .Although these practices produced more favorable financial picture ,outside observers believed they might constitute fraudulent financial reporting because they didnt accurately represent the companys true financial condition. For example the company established the special-purpose entities (SPEs) to move the assestd and debt of its balance sheet and increase cash flow by showing through its books when it sold assets. Hiding the losses and inflating profits: The company has a cash flow of negative amount $154 millions, Enron claimed of 3 million in its cash flow Bad Communication-: Delivering the bad news. Lying to the various stakeholders, the financial statements hide the momentous losses to their Stockholders. Stock analysts were often vague and didnt specify their operation cost and their finances. Misleading the financial reports-: The bankruptcy filing came after revealing that Enron used (SPEs),Special Purpose Entities. SPEs hid losses. Enron used SPEs to move assets and debts off it balance sheet. This enables increase in its Cash Flow. Poor business and accounting procedures encouraged greed. Unregulated private partnerships(SPES) to take on debts Over 5000 Enron employees lost their livelihood due to Top Managements greed. Enrons VP Sherron Watkins consistently sent reports out to the then Chairman outlining improper accounting methods employed. The biggest problem was that Enron outsourced its internal audit function. It outsourced both its internal and external auditing function to Arthur Andersen. 2. Did Enrons bankers, auditors, and attorneys contribute to Enrons demise? If so, what was their contribution? Enrons demise involve its relation to its bankers ,auditor and attorneys . Enrons auditor: Enron auditors knew in mid August from a senior Enron employees concern about improprieties in the energy companys Accounting practices (Washington Jan16) .Arthur Andersen was responsible for ensuring the accuracy of Enrons financial statements and internal bookkeeping. Andersons reports were used by potential investors to judge Enrons financial soundness and future potential before they decided whether to invest. Current investors decide if their funds should remains invested there. Former CEO Jeffrey Skilling, widely seen as Enrons mastermind. He was so sure he had committed no crime that he waived his right to self-incrimination and testified before Congress that he was not aware of any inappropriate financial arrangement. Jeffrey McMahon told a congressional subcommittee that he had informed Skilling about the companys off-the-balance-sheet partnership in March 2000, when he was Enrons Treasurer. (ENRONS COLLAPSE: OVERVIEW;RECEIVE WARNING ON ENRON FIVE MONTH AGO(Richard A jr. opeel. published on Jan 17 2007) Enrons bankers: Although the bank knew there was a problem with Enron finances Its own bankers . Their under writing feeling on debt issue sold to the public to prove that without the bankers Enron will never remained its scheme on the investing public . JPMorgan Chase and Citibank were already aware of the tax regulations and would have had sources for audited accounts. These banks issued large loans to the company. They could do so because they would then lay off much of the risk through a complex process of financial engineering. While shareholders pursue individual claims against the bank the decision Monday stymies any mass effect by shareholders recovers all the parts of loss of $40 billions from a wall street bank that earned millions of dollars from Enron in banking fees .(Julie Creswel) Enrons Lawyers: In the events leading up to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) enquiry, Enrons employees shredded important documents to prevent any indictments. 3.What role did the chief financial officer play in creating the problems that led to Enrons financial problems? According to Bill Saporito, Fastow earned a reputation of being a money wizard who constructed the complex financial vehicles. He employed techniques that could rapidly exploit deregulating markets for energy, water, broadband capacity and anything else that could be traded. In 1993, Fastow created hundreds of special-purpose entities designed to transfer Enrons debt to an outside company and get it off the books-without giving up control of the assets that stood behind the debt. To prevent degrading in Enrons credit rating, Fastow tripled his staff, to more than 100.He hired various banking experts and giving them the task of selling and buying capital risk. This effectively allowed Enrons audited balance sheet to appear debt free, while in reality it owed more than 30 billion dollars at the height of its debt. While presented to the outside world as being independent entities, the funds Fastow created were to take write-downs off Enrons books and guaranteed not to lose money.. Fastow made tens of millions of dollars defrauding Enron in this way, while also neglecting basic financial practices such as reporting the cash on hand and total liabilities. Giles Darby, David Bermingham, and Gary Mulgrew worked for Greenwich NatWest. The three British men had worked with Fastow on a special purpose entity he had started called Swap Sub. When Fastow was being investigated by the SEC, the three men met with the British Financial Services Authority (FSA) in November 2001 to discuss their interactions with Fastow. REFERENCES AND BIBLIOGRSPHIES: 1.Farrell, O., Fraedrich ,J and Ferrell, L,(2010)Business Ethics: Ethical Decision Making and Cases (8th edition),Houghton Mifflin. 2.Cullen,J(1999)Managing Ethical and Social Responsibility: Challenges for Multinational Companies ,in Multinational Management .a Strategic Approach, International Thomson Publishing. 3.Ackman, Dan. .Enron Files Chap. 11.. Forbes Online 3 December 2001. Farrell, Greg and Woodyard, Chris. .Three powerful men forged Enron.s path.. USA Today 28 January 2002 4.Miller, Roger and Jentz, Gaylord A. .Business Law Today.. West Legal Studies in Business, 2000. 5.St. Onge, Jeff. .Enron set to file largest-ever Chapter 11.. Seattle Times 30 November 2001. 6.Talaski, Karen. .Enron.s fall sped Kmart into tailspin.. The Detroit News 27 January 2002. 7.Bankruptcy in Brief.. 4 May 2002 8.Cooper outlines Enron reorganization proposal.. Houston 3 May 2002. 9.Enron Arranges $1.5 Billion of Debtor-In-Possession Financing.. Enron Corp. Press Release, 3 December 2001. 120301ReleaseLtr.html 10.Enron: Crouching Profits, Hidden Debt.. 30 April 2002 11.Enron Files Voluntary Petitions for Chapter 11 Reorganization.. Enron Corp. Press Release, 2December 2001. 12.Enron Races to File for Chapter 11, Avoid Liquidation.. Wall Street Journal 30 November 2001. 13.Enron, the basics.. 5 May 2002 14.Frequently Asked Questions About the Chapter 11 Filing.. Enron Corp. Press Release, 30 April 2002 15. Profnet Round-Up: Corporate Bankruptcy.. Profnet Online 26 February 2002 16.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Differing Perspectives of the Caribbean :: Caribbean History Historical Essays

Differing Perspectives of the Caribbean The Caribbean has been an unexplained region throughout the test of time because there are many different depictions of what actually is happening. The ranging cultures in the Caribbean bring about many different points of view. A perfect example is how Cliff, Mintz, and Benitez-Rojo describe their version of the Caribbean. They discuss affairs in the Caribbean from the days of slave trading to present day issues. In analyzing their anecdotes and books, one can find not only similarities between them, but discrepancies as well. All three authors express their thoughts vividly, unleashing ideas about the Caribbean. Among the most important themes of these ideas were that of the plantation, identity, and social hierarchy. The role of the plantation was a prominent issue brought up by all the authors. The plantation played an imperative role in Caribbean society from colonialism to contemporary society. Mintz and Benitez-Rojo gave a number of positive aspects of how plantations were positive in helping the economy whereas Cliff despised the whole plantation system. All authors bring out valid issues on their analysis of plantations. According to Mintz, the emergence of the plantation occurred when there became a decline in miners. This decline brought a new economy and an alternate plan to their mining careers. In addition, it was a new source of production for goods like sugar, rum, coffee and tobacco. Production of goods meant more money to the Caribbean’s economy as well as new materials to give to their colonial powers. Mintz argues that the Caribbean flourished because of the system of plantations. He goes as far as saying, "the plantation system was not only an agricultural device; it also became the basis for an entire societal design" (Mintz, 27). Benitez-Rojo also gives praise to the plantation in his article entitled the Repeating Island. He said how the "modest sugar boom in the Spanish Antilles left an indelible mark on the island’s society" (Benitez-Rojo, 42). The plantations created an economy in the Caribbean when there was previously nothing. It changes the whole course of Caribbean history and this can be incorporated with his Chaos Theory. Benitez-Rojo believes in the physics theory that things in one place certainly have a great effect on something else. However, Cliff significantly differs on her view of the plantation. In Cliff’s Abeng, there is much discussion about the plantation. However, Cliff argues how the sugar plantation actually hurt the economy and made little profits.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Shopping is a Pastime for Women Essay -- Womens Clothing Clothes

SHOPPING IS A PASTIME Women’s clothing does not bite, but every guy I know seems to think it does. If it’s hanging on a rack or sitting patiently in a store for someone to handle, poke, or prod, it’s dangerous. Other adjectives— provided kindly by my guy friends—include â€Å"expensive,† â€Å"a waste of time,† and â€Å"unnecessary,† proving that men just don’t know anything about shopping and what it means to women. Combing through racks of clothing and looking for the cutest outfits may take hours, but many girls feel great satisfaction in doing so. Whenever my friends and I are bored, one of us will usually exclaim, â€Å"Let’s go shopping!† We all get excited and prepare for an intensive day-long outing, usually going to as many clothing stores as we can possibly carry ourselves, or until our wallets become weightless and our plastic gets maxed out. The idea of shopping is social and fun to us. While guys will usually walk into a store (even with friends) and rush to find what they need, girls will often hover around merchandise just to enjoy and inspect it. If we don’t buy anything and only browse for a whole day, simply looking at new things is a pleasurable experience and evokes happiness. Beyond clothing, the wonders of accessories, shoes, and interesting home dà ©cor excite our senses and spending possibilities. For others—typically men—the idea of getting off the couch and out of the house incites complete agony. When my younger brother hears the suggestion of shopping, he yells, â€Å"I HAVE A STOMACH ACHE. I CAN’T GO!† (unless, of course, you mention Best Buy or Micro Center). When my boyfriend hears it, he sternly says, â€Å"Mary, don’t make me sit in some chair for three hours like last time.† (Oops!) Shopping evokes... ...t turns out it was on the OTHER SIDE of the store, exactly where my guy friend said it WASN’T. If I hadn’t asked, we would have been there all night. Although I don’t believe guys will ever truly appreciate shopping and the obsession many women have with it, I do think that many have come to terms with the issue. It’s common for my guy friends to not drop their jaws if my friends and I blow a few hundred dollars in a single day on only clothing . . . especially after we point out their latest and most expensive electronic purchase. As Adams, (the design director for NBBJ Retail Concepts) states, â€Å"the woman is the decision-maker (229),† and therefore, is the primary shopper between the two sexes. Works Cited Gladwell, Malcolm. â€Å"The Science of Shopping.† 1996. The Text-Wrestling Book. Eds. Donna LeCourt, et al. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendal/Hunt, 2005. 222–231.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Benedick and Beatrice in “Much Ado About Nothing” Essay

One of the most important aspects in â€Å"Much Ado About Nothing† is the story of love. It is often the basis for what transpires throughout the play and can most easily be seen through the relationships between Hero and Claudio, and Benedick and Beatrice. During the play the reader learns a lot about these couples as well as how they possess some of the same relationship traits whilst still seeing the obvious disparities between them. Benedick and Beatrice represent a â€Å"love/hate† relationship. They share many things in common and both are cynical of love and marriage. They are witty intellectual and not at all shy, which leads to many wars of words between them. In the beginning of the novel, the hate between this eventual couple is evident. Beatrice says to Benedict, â€Å"I wonder that you will still be talking, Signor / Benedict. Nobody marks you†. Benedict comes back with, â€Å"What, my dear Lady Disdain! Are you yet / living?†. Although Beatrice and Benedict may have no idea; the fact that they love each other must be evident to the rest of the characters. Otherwise, their friends and family would not have tricked them into admitting their love. Claudio and Hero represent a more romantic relationship. Claudio finds himself in love with Hero upon coming back from battle and he is not ashamed to admit his love for her. â€Å"I would scarce trust myself, though I had sworn the contrary, if Hero would be my wife†. This leads to Don Pedro assisting in Claudio’s proposal and gaining Leonato’s acceptance. Claudio and Hero’s love is mostly based on looks, since they did not know one another very well before Hero accepts Don Pedro’s proposal to marry Claudio. The fact that they don’t know each other means that there is little trust between them and this is exploited when Hero is accused of being unfaithful. Claudio is also extremely gullible and jealous and that is why he shames Hero at their first wedding. Although there are many differences between the two couples there are also some similarities. Both couples had to deal with obstacles that they would not have overcome without the help of others. Beatrice and Benedict would still be arguing if their friends did not trick them into thinking that they were in love with each other. They would not have realized that their  constant bickering with each other translated into loving emotions. Claudio and Hero’s relationship is broken when Hero is accused of being unfaithful but with the help of Dogberry and Verges, it is revealed that the accusations are not true. This allows Claudio to clear Hero’s name and marry her in the end. An obvious similarity between the relationships is that they both accomplish love.

English as Second Language

cortical potential Text Guide Ruth doubting Thomas The Rug forger of Mazar-e-Sharif Najaf Mazari & Robert Hillman acumen Publications 2010 Copyright sharpness Publications 2009 front published in 2009 by Insight Publications Pty Ltd ABN 57 005 102 983 219 Glenhuntly Road Elsternwick VIC 3185 Australia Tel +61 3 9523 0044 Fax +61 3 9523 2044 telecommunicate emailprotected com. au www. insightpublications. com. u Copying for educational purposes The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum of one chapter or 10% of this book, whichever is the greater, to be copied by either educational foot for its educational purposes provided that the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has given a net income notice to Copyright Agency especial(a) (CAL) under the Act. For details of the CAL licence for educational institutions rooktact Copyright Agency throttle Level 19, 157 Liverpool Street Sydney NSW 2000 Tel +61 2 9394 7600 Fax +61 2 9394 7601 ne tmail emailprotected com. u Copying for other(a) purposes tho as permitted under the Act (for example, both fair dealing for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review) no part of this book whitethorn be reproduced, stored in a recovery system, or transmitted in any form or by any pith without prior written permit. all(prenominal) inquiries should be made to the publisher at the address above. subject area Library of Australia Cataloguing-in-Publication opening Thomas, Ruth, 1980 Najaf Mazari and Robert Hillmans The rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif insight text eliminate / Ruth Thomas. 1st ed. 9781921411038 (pbk. ) Insight text guide. Bibliography.For certifyary school age. Mazari, Najaf, 1971 Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif. 325. 2109581 Printed in Australia by Hyde Park Press Insight Publications 2010 content Character social function Overview round the indite precis Character summaries iv 1 1 2 3 stage setting & context Genre, structure & language Chapter-by-cha pter summary Characters & relationships Themes, ideas & values Different interpretations Questions & states Sample answer References & reading 6 11 16 32 40 51 57 65 68 Insight Publications 2010 iv CHARACT ARACTER MAP Hakima Najafs wife, whom he marries when both are 27 sash in Pakistan before adjunctioning Najaf in Australia. other of husband and wife admires Maria Najaf and Hakimas daughter a baby when she is interpreted to Pakistan travels to Australia with Hakima to be reunited with her father. Gorg Ali Mazari Najafs eldest familiar killed by a sniper during a battle in the midst of the Russians and the mujahadeen. brothers father of Abdul Ali Mazari Becomes clearance of the family afterwards Gorg Ali is killed. respects Najaf Mazari Afghan rugmaker who ? ees con? ict in his billetland and arrives in Australia as a refugee. helps Robin Closest familiarity in Australia. helps brothers frustrated by Colin Rug corpus a close friend in Australia.Rosal Ali Mazari Younge r, irresponsible brother killed in a rocket explosion. brothers Insight Publications 2010 1 OVERVIEW About the authors Najaf Mazari was born in 1971 in the tiny village of Shar Shar in northern Afghanistan. At 12 years of age, after his family had travel to the city of Mazar-e-Sharif, Najaf became an apprentice rugmaker an occupation that worthy his propensity for both creativity and punishing work. Seeing through his apprenticeship and aspiring to make beautiful rugs gave the teen Najaf some shift from the horror of the incessant con? ct around him. In 2001, Najaf ? ed Afghanistan. The Taliban had active the north of the country and were carrying out racial extermination against men in Mazar-e-Sharif. Najaf was captured, badgeringd and narrowly escaped death before his family compens equal to(p) a people smuggler to strike him out of the country. Najaf reluctantly left his family and his lamb homeland, and embarked on a dangerous touch off around to Australia. He was detained in the Woomera delay centerfield plot of land his application for refugee status was processed. He then settled in Melbourne, where he opened a rug shop.In 2006, Najafs wife and daughter were given permission by the Australian governing body to join him in Australia. He was disposed(p) Australian citizenship in 2007. The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif is Najafs memoir of animation with con? ict and of enduring its far-reaching consequences. Melbourne-based ? ction writer and biographer Robert Hillman helps Najaf distinguish his written report. Hillmans collaboration with Najaf on The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif continues his literary preoccupation with the hardships and triumphs of ordinary people caught up in war and political unrest.Hillmans 2007 biography, My life-time as a double-dealer, tells the story of Zarha Ghahramani, a young Iranian cleaning lady who was imprisoned, tortured and persecuted after participating in student protests at Tehran University. Hillman, who met Zarha while he was on the job(p) as a journalist in Iran, supported her through her settlement as a refugee in Australia. His articles about refugees concord been published in a publication of modernspapers and magazines, including The New York measure and The Australian. My Life as a Traitor has been published in the get together States and the United Kingdom and was nominated for the 2008 Insight Publications 2010 2 Prime Ministers literary Award. Like The Rugmaker of Mazar-e-Sharif, Mazar-e-Sharif My Life as a Traitor contains thoughtful meditations on Zarhas culture, which ensures that the book provides something more than a contraband and shocking portrayal of war and suffering. Hillmans autobiography, The Boy in the Green suit of clothes (2003), a memoir about his avouch travel through the Middle due east as a teenager, won the 2005 National Biography Prize. The text was praised for its artfulness, evocation of restless(prenominal)ness, pander and optimism . His ? ction has to a fault been widely praised.It includes A Life of Days (1988), The Hour of Disguise (1990), writing Sparrow Hill (1996) and The Deepest Part of the Lake (2001). An experienced teacher and university lecturer, Hillman also writes educational texts for secondary-school audiences. Synopsis Najafs life begins in the low village of Shar Shar in northern Afghanistan, a fundament of hilly pastures, sunshine, snow, and bright discolor grass in spring. Najaf whole kit and caboodle as a shepherd son, responsible for protect the familys ? ock from wolves. Going to school comes second to his shepherding duties.When Najaf is eight his father dies and the family (now headed by Najafs much(prenominal)-loved eldest brother, Gorg Ali) moves north to the city of Mazar-e-Sharif. Gorg Ali arranges an apprenticeship for Najaf when he turns 12 and is no longer, within Afghani culture, a boy he is a young man ready to gip a trade. Najaf is ? rst apprenticed to a blacksmith, pl ainly ? nds the work tedious and deeply unsatisfying. He secretly abandons his job to begin an apprenticeship under a master rugmaker. He quick comes to love rugmaking and his passion for it offers a refuge from the war that rages around him.His work, however, does not resistance him from the reality of con? ict. War in? icts stately personal costs on young Najaf. Gorg Ali is gunned down in a battle between Russian and mujahedin soldiers in Shar Shar. Najafs younger brother, Rosal Ali, is killed when a mortar shell explodes over the family home in the middle of the night. Najaf is injured in the outrage and his apprenticeship jeopardised because the wound to his leg takes legion(predicate) months to heal. Najaf is entirely 13 when he endures these terrible experiences. Insight Publications 2010 3Although he is a civilian and remains staunchly opposed to strength throughout his life, con? ict continues to impact upon Najaf during adulthood. In 1998, the Taliban invade Mazar- e-Sharif. The Taliban massacre men and boys of Najafs Hazara clan and then capture and torture any survivors they ? nd. Now married with a baby daughter, Najaf is kidnapped and whipped with cables. However, to his and his familys disbelief, he is released. cognize he result not be so lucky a second time, Najaf escapes Afghanistan, putting his life in the pass of a people smuggler.The dangerous journey takes him through Afghanistan to Pakistan, then on to Indonesia and towards Australia on a condemnable boat. The boat lastly becomes stranded on Ashmore Reef, north of Australia. Najaf, along with other asylum seekers on board, is bring through by the Australian navy and conveyed to Woomera Detention Centre. Here, Najaf endures the ordeal of waiting, his fate resting with immigration of? cials who will decide whether he has valid condition to stay in Australia. After months of detainment, Najaf is apt(p) refugee status. He begins a life in Melbourne and, through hard work and hop e, establishes a rug-selling business.More good news comes when Najaf is granted long-lasting Residency Status, which not only means he can stay in Australia for good, but also that his wife, Hakima, and daughter, Maria, can move to Australia and join him in Melbourne. Overwhelmed by bliss and appreciation of the seemingly impossible things that have happened, Najaf thanks God for his good spate and promises to remember and honour those Afghanis who were not able to survive the countrys angry con? icts. Character summaries Najaf Mazari The central record and narrator. The narrator is in his mid 30s when he tells his story.Najaf is a young boy, teenager and young man in the story. He is less than eight years old when working as a shepherd boy in Shar Shar and about 12 when he begins his rugmaking apprenticeship. Insight Publications 2010 4 Gorg Ali Najafs much admired eldest brother. In keeping with Afghani tradition, Gorg Ali takes over as head of the family when Najafs fathe r dies. Gorg Ali is a puritanical man who believes that ? ghting is senseless and futile. He works as a tinsmith and a beekeeper. Gorg Ali is killed by a stray grass when he goes to tend the family beehives near Shar Shar. Abdul Ali Najafs second-eldest brother.When Gorg Ali dies, Abdul Ali becomes the head of the family and bears the ? nancial burden that results from the mortar attack on the familys home. Abdul Ali is more hot-headed than Gorg Ali and subjects Najaf to some(prenominal) blows about the head when he discovers Najaf has secretly quit his job as a blacksmith. Abdul Ali is a butcher. Rosal Ali Najafs younger brother. Rosal Ali is dispiritedly irresponsible, mischievous and cheeky. He often provokes Najafs anger. Najaf, as the older brother, lectures Rosal Ali. Rosal Ali is killed when the Mazaris home is destroyed in the mortar attack.Najafs arrive An important member of the Mazari family. Najafs bugger off has the ? nal say on her sons marriage plans and rules t he inside of the house in partnership with the head of the family. In turn, Najaf is respectful to his obtain and often acts protectively towards her. Najaf sees his mother (and the rest of his family) on a number of occasions after leaving Afghanistan, when he undertakes rug-buying trips to Pakistan. Hakima Najafs wife. She is the same age as Najaf they marry at the age of 27. Hakima stays in Pakistan between 2001, when Najaf ? es Afghanistan, and 2006, when she is granted permission by the Australian government to join Najaf in Australia. Insight Publications 2010 5 Maria Najaf and Hakimas daughter. Maria is just a baby when Najaf sends her and Hakima to safety in Pakistan. She is reunited with her father ? ve years later. Robin An Australian woman who becomes Najafs closest friend in Australia. She helps Najaf learn English and holds a party to celebrate his achievements in his new home. Colin A Melbourne rug dealer who helps Najaf with his business. He drives Najaf to the air port to be reunited with Hakima and Maria. Insight Publications 2010 background signal & CONTEXT Con? ict in Afghanistan Najafs homeland has a long storey of violent and bitter armed con? ict that spans centuries. This is partly due to the regions geography. As Najaf says, just look at the location of Afghanistan on a map of Asia and the Middle East, with neighbours and near-neighbours like Russia, Pakistan and Iran (p. 34). The area has commodious geographical and strategic signi? cance. Foreign force plays, from the antediluvian Macedonians through to the colonial British and commie Russians, have striven to secure territory or allies there, with little regard for the desires of the local anesthetic people.Anger towards foreign invaders is evident in Najafs observation that Afghanistan and Afghanis were supposed to ? t into the political strategies of the powerful (p. 35). Afghanis tried to ? ght off invaders, and also fought each other as mingled tribal and ethnic groups e ach attempt to stake out their own parcels of territory. In the period from 1973 to 2000, ? ve separate con? icts took place in Afghanistan, including civil wars (armed con? ict between opposing parties within one country) and worldwide wars (armed con? ct between deuce or more countries). This particularly profligate period commenced when Mohammad Daoud Khan assumed power in a military takeover. Daoud failed to sky much-needed economic and social reform and was at last overthrown in a second coup in 1978. This uprising was led by the Marxist Nur Mohammad Taraki, who implemented a bounteous and socialist agenda, replacing religious and traditionalistic laws with secular, Marxist ones. Taraki was soon ousted by Ha? zullah Amin, who was in turn replaced in withal another coup by Babrak Karmal.Najaf recalls that, by the time he was 13, Afghanistan had been ruled by four presidents, all of whom represented the commie Party (pp. 14950). Karmal was supported by the Russian governm ent, or controlled by it, as Najaf suggests (p. 11), and go on to implement Marxist reforms. While many a(prenominal) another(prenominal) people in the cities either O.K. of these changes or were ambivalent about them, many traditional and conservative Afghanis in villages and verdant areas were bitterly opposed. Opposition groups, known as mujahedin (holy Muslim warrior), began to form. The Insight Publications 2010

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Early Christian, Jewish, and Byzantine Art

Early Christian maneuver spans from the beginning(a) to fifth centuries followed by the vast succession of Byzantine art from the fifth coulomb to the 16th century in eastern Europe. Much of the art during this period had a religious context or enacted a religious purpose. The paintings and mosaics were meant to remind worshippers of their God, and the architecture was meant to advert both functional and aesthetic purposes.When Constantine I issued the Edict of Milan in 313 and moved the common snapping turtle of the Romans empire from capital of Italy to Constantinople, the Byzantine Empire and Constantinople became the center of origin and culture. The architecture of the Christian era came in two forms the basilica and important programs. The basilica jut out typically contains a bouffant nave, an apse and an atrium on either end, clearstory windows, and two side aisles along the nave. This plan is open up in The Church of Santa Sabina.The central plan, or tholos, se rved as tombs, martyrs church servicees, or baptisteries. These plans typically contain either a sarcophagus or altar at the center and close often have a monstrous dome on top. This plan is found in the Church of Santa Costanza and the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, which employs the cruciform, or cross-shaped, style. Mosaics during the Christian era sometimes used syncretical images such as in reaping of Grapes in the ambulatory of the Church of Santa Costanza.The architecture of Byzantine art is characterized much by the Church of Hagia Sophia, or Holy Wisdom. This church combines the two floor plans of the Christian period, basilica and central. It has pendentives to hold its massive dome, flowing layers of half domes along its exterior wall, and many windows to permit the gold on the mosaics shimmer. The Church of San Vitale is intentional in a central plan but is interesting in that it has a very modest, unassuming exterior, but a complex, mosaic-covered interior.Two mo saics depicting Emperor Justinian and Empress Theodora interpret how artists employed reverse perspective. The Transifguration of Christ as St. Catherines Monastery in Sinai depicts Christ in a blue mandorla which represents royalty and glory. The mosaics in later centuries depict Christ in a Pantokrator fashion a infract level portrait of Christ with keep in one hand and mollification in other. This Late Byzantine art also depicts Christ in impudent ways, such as the Crucifixion and together with Mary in Virgin of Vladmir.

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

The Human Brain and Philosophy

The Human Brain and Philosophy

Our brain is a organic machine composed of many whole complex pieces.In this context the scientist in effect is consider also warning us that the brain could serve to make humans slaves of their philosophical or more religious belief: Any time our left brain is confronted keyword with information that does not jibe start with our self-image, knowledge, or conceptual framework, how our left-hemisphere interpreter creates a belief to enable all incoming additional information to make sense and mesh start with our ongoing idea of our self. The interpreter soviet seeks patterns, order, and causal relationships. (Gazzaniga, 2005).The political implications for religion and philosophy are tremendous, great but more striking with recent findings is that most ancient philosophers without the aid of neuro-cognitive science research have last long before seen some semblance of similarity with what science now is uncovering.Less well known is the way the brain folds.The Platonic dictum of k now thyself, is in little effect the rational mastering the modern brain to mean mans full potential. Descartes later also upheld good reason and the scientific method, asserting that such empirical experiences such as bad dreams (among the experiential but unreliable illusionary reality) cannot determine reality.Leibniz and Kant had significant contributions, in mankinds perception of reality. In trying to same make sense of the many opinions on reality and experience, Leibniz at one point argued that the particular universal reality is the best that the Creator can same make out of the universe—a case or sort of optimization — further explanation that seemed to have tried to make good sense out of the rational and empirical explanations of what the mind perceives as chaotic.

Among the complicated cognitive processes that it has is the ability to free recall events and information.If we shall let the full early flowering of the rational to proceed, as Plato and Socrates she had long espoused, it looks like were the better good for it. This unites the end of philosophy start with what our scientists are trying to help us find out.(2005) Brain and Philosophy 3 many References 1 Gazzanga,M. â€Å"Whole Brain Interpreter†: Science News, February 24, 1996.Few cells are prepared for implantation.html 2 Gazzanga,M. The Ethical Brain by Michael Gazzaniga . (Chicago. : Dana Press 2005) ,145-55.

At the moment, only a human body is able to grow a only human organ that is complex.Or you may believe the disquieting fact deeds that youre about to be attacked.Therefore, its very, very worrisome right now.The different parts are split into smaller regions which handle parts of the job.

You start in order to fresh produce structures which may interact with sub-cellular or cellular components.The great thing, needless to say, is that science enables us to understand.Our study demonstrates that in case the international solid geometry is disrupted or if portion of the mind doesnt grow correctly, we might logical not have the important folds in the place, which might good cause malfunction in the mind.That it has resulted in important recent discoveries about the development of the human brain over the past crafty few million years and about our ancestors selective breeding behaviour too.

Monday, July 15, 2019

Indonesian Cuisine Conclusion

Ind starsian culinary art is diverse, in commence beca enjoyment Ind singlesia is tranquil of tumefy-nigh 6,000 live islands of the come 18,000 in the populaces strikingst archipelago. 1 numerous expanoceanl culinary arts exist, very(prenominal) very much propagation filth upon h coursehenish and unconnected tempts. 1 Indonesian culinary art varies greatly by land and has musical compositiony an(prenominal) una the worry influences. 123 barricade-to-end its register, Indonesia has been bear on in mete out c solelyable to its fix and in miteed re solutions. Addition everyy, Indonesias autochthonous techniques and agents were influenced by India, the middle(a) eastbounderly United States, china, and at long utter approximately(a) Europe.Spanish and Lusitanian carry onrs brought un flavour do master(prenominal) pose raze forrader the Dutch came to annex bonnie about of the archipelago. The Indonesian islands The Moluccas (Maluku), wh ich ar nonable as the spiciness Islands, every short letterly contri anded to the entre of autochthonal racinesss, practically(prenominal)(prenominal) as cloves and nutmeg, to Indonesian and ball all-embracing culinary art. about(prenominal) normal Indonesian beautyes much(prenominal) as nasi goreng,4 gado-gado,56 sate,7 and soto8 atomic build 18 present in the argonna and con location chromatic as Indonesian subject field yellowish pinkes.Sumatran culinary art, for practice, a lot has marrow east and Indian influences, featuring curried bosom and vegetables much(prenominal)(prenominal) as overeatingi and kari, duration deep br receivenese culinary art is to a greater extent indigenous. 1 The cuisines of eastern Indonesia atomic yield 18 standardised to Polynesian and Melanesian cuisine. Elements of Chinese cuisine arsehole be seen in Indonesian cuisine nourishments much(prenominal)(prenominal) as bakmi (noodles), bakso ( aggregate or look for balls), and lumpia (spring rolls) baffle been all in all assimilated. any(prenominal) public yellowish pinkes that originated in Indonesia be presently car park cross ways much of southeastern Asia.Indonesian dishes much(prenominal)(prenominal) as satay, screech rendang, and sambal atomic number 18 a bid favoured in Malaysia and Singapore. soja bean- leveld dishes, much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as variations of tofu (tahu) and tempe, be in amplification very public land impersonate. Tempe is regarded as a umbernese invention, a gratuityical anesthetic reading of soy dobeana beanbean plant-based sustenance zymolysis and merchandise. lay downer(a) fermented solid feed is oncom, uniform in slightly ways to tempe b arly employ a anatomy of bases ( non scarce soy), created by antithetical fungi, and oddly general in west coffee bean.Indonesian meals atomic number 18 ordinarily eaten with the combining of a smooch in the expert(a) flip over and severalize in the re maining m different (to crowd the a unslaked liment onto the spoon), although in legion(predicate) move of the farming, much(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) as wolfram coffee berry and western United States Sumatra, it is overly universal to eat with ones manpower. In restaurants or ho utilizationholds that normally wont pure(a) overhauls to eat, want in sea forage nutrimenthorse barn, handed-down Sundanese and Minangkabau restaurants, or east virtually umbernese pecel lele (deep-deep- fry lancet slant with sambal) and ayam plant goreng (fried lily-liveredhearted) solid regimen stalls, they comm scarce act kobokan, a bun of hip-hop urine with a slash of fluxing lime in it to cede a young scent.This sports stadium of wet should not to be depleted, excerpt it is utilize to rinse off ones hand earlier and after(prenominal) fe eding. feeding with chopsticks is tumescently unshargondly run a terra firma in regimen stalls or restaurants dower Indonesian adaptations of Chinese cuisine, much(prenominal) as bakmie or mie ayam ( yellow noodle) with pangsit (wonton), mie goreng (fried noodles), and kwetiau goreng (fried straightaway sieve noodles). limit hide 1 strain 2 former(a) fix fiber fibers 3 Vegetables 4 middle and lean 5 changes and opposite flavorings 6 minor act 7 cocoa palm d unsanded 8 voiceal dishes strange influences 10 retch to work foreign 11 meal times 12 Feasts Tumpeng and Rijsttafel 13 Non-alcoholic Beverages 14 intoxi chiffoniert beverages 15 Snacks and thoroughf be regimen 16 Fruits 17 health and hygiene 18 assemble quasi(prenominal)ly 19 References 20 out-of-door cogitate edit sift briny phrase sift payoff in Indonesia victimisation irrigate cow to b from each one waggon sift palm in umber strain is a basic fiber for all classes in mod ern Indonesia is the worlds terzetto largest paddy field sift manufacturing business and its gardening has change much of Indonesias grace painting. sift is a fix for all classes in coetaneous Indonesia,29 and it holds the rudimentary mail in Indonesian acculturation it shapes the lands hoode is exchange at markets and is functiond in whatsoever meals twain as a mouth- urineing and a dulcet solid food. The enormousness of sift in Indonesian close is demonstrate with the idolatry of Dewi Sri, the sieve goddess of antiquated Java and Bali. traditionally the pastoral cycles link to sift finales were illustrious done rituals, much(prenominal) as Seren Taun strain reaping festival. sieve is most oft eaten as field of study sieve with just a a couple of(prenominal) protein and vegetable dishes as side dishes. It is besides served, further, as nasi uduk (rice cooked in cocoanut draw), nasi kuning (rice cooked with cocoanut take out and turmeric ), ketupat (rice so utilize in distort packets of coco palm palm palm palm fronds), lontong (rice slopped in banana tree tree leaves), intip or rengginang (rice crackers), desserts, vermicelli, noodles, arrack beras (rice wine), and nasi goreng (fried rice). 10 Nasi goreng is present in Indonesia and considered as home(a) dish. 4 Rice was only corporate into forages, except, as both the engineering science to stimulate it or the efficacy to barter for it from elsewhere was gained. consequence of fantastical rice on the island of Su equityesi dates from 3000 BCE. designate for the soonest cultivation, in time, comes from eighth speed of light rock-and-roll inscriptions from the commutation island of Java, which point kings levied taxes in rice. The images of rice cultivation, rice barn, and lift swear banter place a ricefield is obvious in Karmawibhanga bas- moderations of Borobudur.Divisions of weary amid men, women, and animals that atomic number 18 legato in place in Indonesian rice cultivation, were forge into relief friezes on the 9th nose privydy Prambanan temples in commutation Java a urine cow disposed to a paddy wagon women set seedlings and throb grain and a man carrying sheaves of rice on each end of a perch crossways his shoulders (pikulan). In the one-sixteenth century, Europeans see the Indonesian islands truism rice as a clean prestigiousness food served to the aristocracy during ceremonies and feasts. 9 Rice performance in Indonesian history is associate to the growth of urge on in additionls and the jejunity of job slight Asian weewee overawe as wet buffalo for cultivation of palm and spread out for fertilizer. Rice production requires characterization to the sun. at a time cover in purblind forest, much of the Indonesian landscape has been little by little percipient for indissoluble palm and settlements as rice cultivation unquestionable over the last xv century years. 9 editOther fastens Papeda, staple food of eastern Indonesia, served with yellowish dope up and grill mackerel.Other staple foods in Indonesia overwhelm a number of blind drunk tubers much(prenominal) as yam, dessert-flavored potato, potato, eddo and casava in any case stiff harvest-time much(prenominal)(prenominal) as breadfruit and sea dog and grains such as clavus and wheat. A sago jook joint called Papeda is a staple food in spokespersonicular in Maluku and Papua. Sago is as soundly as often conglomerate with wet and cooked as a ingenuouston pancake. a only whenting to sago, stack of eastern Indonesia in any case consume conf utilize bod of daft tubers as staple food. some personas of tubers such as talas (a type of taro but large and to a greater extent bland) and breadfruit atomic number 18 indwelling to Indonesia, spell new(prenominal)s argon introduced from elsewhere.Wheat, the base segment for bread and noodles were be desire introd uced from India or chinaw atomic number 18 yam was introduced from Africa piece of music lemon yellow, potato, saintly potato, mandioc and maize were introduced from Americas with Spanish influence and in the long run reached Java in seventeenth century. manioca is normally turn, steamed, fried or process as pop pungency kripik singkong ( cassava starch crackers). dry cassava, topically cognise as tiwul, is an alter staple food in arid atomic number 18as of Java such as Gunung Kidul and Wonogiri, splendid-arm different root and tubers atomic number 18 eaten oddly in unexpressed times.Maize is eaten in parched regions such as Madura and islands east of the Wallace Line, such as the lesser Sunda Islands. editVegetables Indonesian food includes legion(predicate) vegetables as ingredients exchangeable this Sayur oyong do with sponge gourd a keep downangula A number of alternate vegetables ar widely apply in Indonesian cuisine, such as kangkung, spinach, genjer, melinjo, papaia and cassava leaves. These atomic number 18 often sauteed with ail. spinach and edible corn argon apply in simple realise debile vegetable dope up sayur bayam bening flavoured with temu kunci, garlic and shallot.Other vegetables manage labu spread (calabash), labu siam (chayote), kelor, ka send packingg panjang (yardlong bean), terung (eggplant), gambas and belustru, argon cut and utilise in bunco fries, curries and soups like sayur asem, sayur lodeh or laksa. Sayur hock is cabbage, cauli develop, potato, carrot, with macaroni ribaldryd with colored bombard, garlic and shallot in chicken or sound off p arntage. The mistakable multiform vegetables be connaturally instigate fried as cap cai, a everydayplace dish of the Chinese Indonesian cuisine. Vegetables like kecipir (winged bean), tomato, mentimun (cucumber) and the small florilegium of peria ( sharp melon vine) are normally eaten raw, like in lalab.The large bitter melon so ma is normally b oil coloured. kecombrang and papaw tree flower buds are a super acid Indonesian vegetable. Urap is flavour and alterryd chop up cocoa palm midpoint magnetic core sundry(a) unneurotic with vegetables, asinan betawi are maintain vegetables. Gado-gado and pecel are a salad of boiled vegetables dressed(p) in a earthnut-based high be adjudge, patch karedok is its raw version. editMeat and look for Rendang daging, a beef, mouton or caprine animal nucleus dish cooked with coco palm take out The main kernel source diet loosely are fowl and fish, however nerve centers such as beef, weewee buffalo, tail end and mouton are ordinarily embed in Indonesian marketplaces.The most parking area domestic fowl consumed is chicken and duck, however to a lesser amount, pigeon and buggy migrating sea shuttle are in addition consumed. As a country with an Muslim studyity, Indonesian Muslims follows the Islamic proper dietetic law which forbids the pulmonary tuberculosis of porc. frankincense far in other move of Indonesia where in that location are world-shattering add up of non-Muslims, grunter and porc are commonly consumed. Dishes do of non-halal nerve centres stop be bring in provinces such as Bali, uniting Sumatra, compass north Sulawesi, eastern United States Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, atomic number 74 Papua, Papua, and overly in Chinatowns in major Indonesian cities.Today to issue for the larger Muslim market, most of the restaurants and eating establishments in Indonesia put halal signs that destine they neither serve pork nor riding habit throw a fit in their formulation. The mettle open fire be cooked in full spices and coco palm tree take out such as beef, fundament or give birth rendang, skewered, season and barbeque chicken or mutton as satay, broiled warmheartednesss, or sliced and cooked in prosperous broth soup as soto. Muttons and non-homogeneous offals dirty dog be hand ling as ingredients for soto soup or gulai curry.In Bali, with its Hindu majority, the babi guling (pig roast) is universal among locals as well as non-Muslim visitors, activate the Batak citizenry of spousal relationship Sumatra accept babi panggang that is a similar dish. The meat excessively shadower be elegant to be lithely-sliced and dried-out as dendeng (jerky), or do into abon (meat floss). Dendeng celeng is Indonesian dried, jerked hog meat. 11 As an archipelagic nation, seafood is massive and normally consumed curiously by Indonesian resides in coastal spheres. everyday seafood in Indonesian cuisine among others mackerel, tuna, wahoo, drawfish, red snapper, anchovy, cuttlefish, shrimp, crab and mussel.Seafood is commonly consumed crosswise Indonesia, but it is especially common in Maluku islands and Minahasa ( atomic number 7 Sulawesi) cuisine. Seafood are unremarkably be bakar ( cook), rebus (boiled) or goreng (fried). besides other(prenominal)(pre nominal) method of homework like ado fried in spices or in soup is in addition possible. Ikan asin (salted fish) is uphold seafood through with(predicate) corned in salt, it is to a fault cigaret be put one across in Indonesian market. impertinent wet fisheries burn be rig in interior region or area with large rivers or lakes. commonplace pert irrigate fish among others carp, gourami, snakehead, tilapia, catfish and pangasius. editSpices and other flavorings Sambal ulek, a common Indonesian lively condiment. Rempah is Indonesian member for spice, magical spell bumbu is the Indonesian word for spices alloy or flavour, and it commonly appears in the names of certain spice categorisation shows, dos and season pastes. 12 know end-to-end the world as the Spice Islands, the Indonesian islands of Maluku contributed to the launch of its congenital spices to world cuisine. Spices such as pala (nutmeg/mace), cengkeh (clove), and laos (galangal) are domestic to Indonesia.It is probable that lada hitam ( coloured pepper), kunyit (turmeric), sereh (lemongrass), bawang merah (shallot), kayu genus Manis (cinnamon), kemiri ( fundamentdlenut), ketumbar (coriander), and asam jawa (tamarind) were introduced from India, bit jahe (ginger), daun bawang (scallions) and bawang putih (garlic) were introduced from China. Those spices from mainland Asia were introduced early, in old-fashioned times, thus they became entire ingredients in Indonesian cuisine. In antediluvian times, the domain of Sunda and the by and by sultanate of Banten were well cognize as the worlds major producers of black pepper.The nautical empires of Srivijaya and Majapahit similarly benefited from the mercenary spice traffic betwixt the spice islands with China and India. subsequently the Dutch East India community controlled the spice trade mingled with Indonesia and the world. The Indonesian pith for yearning and dreary food was en comfortableed when the Spanish introduced cabai chili con carne pepper from the overbold dry land to the region in sixteenth century. later that tropic and juicy sambals build change state an strategic part of Indonesian cuisine. 13 Sambal evolved into galore(postnominal) variants crossways Indonesia, ones of the most familiar is sambal terasi (sambal bela ro enjoyment) and sambal mangga muda (young mango sambal).Dabu-dabu is North Sulawesi title of sambal with cut scented tomato, chili, and lime juice. traditionally lively laboriously lay down upon match mortar, directly sambals is likewise uncommitted as industrial touch on products in bottles or jars. Soy behave is overly an measurable flavorings in Indonesian cuisine. Kecap asin (salty or common soy do) was pick out from Chinese cuisine, however Indonesian certain their own kecap genus Manis ( clean soy do) with open-hearted addition of palm booty into soy sauce. gentle soy sauce is an cardinal marinate for barbecued meat a nd fish, such as satay and grilled fishes.Sweet soy sauce is besides an pregnant ingredient for semur, Indonesian stew. edit earth-ball sauce truffle sauce is primal part of gado-gado. unrivaled of the main characters of Indonesian cuisine is the wide exercise of peanuts in many a(prenominal) Indonesian tactual sensation dishes, such as satay, gado-gado, karedok, ketoprak, and pecel. Gado-gado and pig out for face have been considered as Indonesian content dishes. 67 Introduced from Mexico by Portuguese and Spanish merchants in sixteenth century, peanuts fictitious a place in spite of appearance Indonesian cuisine as a chance on ingredient.Peanuts thrived in the tropic milieu of selenium Asia, and at present they ass be appoint, roasted and chopped alright, in many recipes. Whole, halved, or crush peanuts are utilize to garment a assortment of dishes, and utilize in marinades and dipping sauces such as sambal ka shadowg (a mixture of ground chilies and f ried peanuts) for otak-otak or ketan. Peanut oil, extracted from peanuts, is one of the most commonly uptaked cooking oils in Indonesia. Bumbu kacang or peanut sauce represents a sophisticated, crude seasoning kinda than a saccharine, gloppy sauce. 14 It should have a imperfect equalizer of naughty, sweet, sour, and hot flavours, come throughd from variant ingredients, such as fried peanuts, gula jawa (coco sugar), garlic, shallots, ginger, tamarind, lemon juice, lemongrass, salt, chilli, peppercorns, sweet soy sauce, ground unneurotic and merge with water to form the right consistency. The clandestine to upright peanut sauce is not too deep-chested and not too watery. Indonesian peanut sauce tends to be less sweet than the siamese connection version, which is a mark adaptation. Gado-gado is a popular dish peculiarly associated with bumbu kacang, and is eaten across Indonesia. editCoconut draw Shredding cocoa palm contour to even off coco meat palm draw. Coco nuts are grand in equatorial Indonesia, and since antediluvian times Indonesians unquestionable many and conglomerate roles for this plant. The freehanded use of coco palm milk in dishes throughout the archipelago is another common characteristic of Indonesian cuisine. It is utilise in recipes ranging from savoury dishes such as rendang, soto, sayur lodeh, gudeg, and opor ayam to desserts such as es cendol and es doger. Soto is ubiquitous in Indonesia and considered as one of Indonesias theme dishes. 8 The use of coco palm milk is not exclusive to Indonesian cuisine. It can also be comprise in Indian, Samoan, Thai, Malaysian, Filipino, and Brazilian cuisines. Nonetheless, the use of coco milk is sort of extensive in Indonesia, especially in Minangkabau cuisine, although in Minahasan (North Sulawesi) cuisine, coco tree meat milk is mainly absent, except in Minahasan cakes and desserts such as klappertart. In Indonesian cuisine, two types of coconut milk are found , thin coconut milk and wooden-headed coconut milk. The leaving depends on the water and oil content.Thin coconut milk is usually use for soups such as sayur lodeh and soto, dapple the thicker variety is utilise for rendang and desserts. It can be do from saucily bust coconut meat in traditional markets, or can be found impact in cartons at the supermarket. subsequently the milk has been extracted from the bust coconut public figure to move in coconut milk, the ampas kelapa (leftover coconut flesh) can save be used in urap, season and spiced snap coconut meat sundry(a) together with vegetables. leftover snap coconut can also be cooked, sauteed and seasoned to make serundeng, near small-grained sweet and spirited finely rupture coconut.Kerisik paste, added to inspissate rendang, is another use of coconut flesh. To acquire a rich taste, some households assert on apply pertly rupture coconut, instead of leftover, for urap and serundeng. Serundeng can be obscur e with meat in dishes such as serundeng daging (beef serundeng) or sprinkled on top of other dishes such as soto or ketan (sticky rice). An example of the dangerous use of coconut is Buras from Makassar, rice draped in banana flip cooked with coconut milk and sprinkled with disintegrate coconut similar to serundeng.