Sunday, November 10, 2019

Geddes Garden City Essay

Introduction   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   The American Political Economist who authored   the best read book titled Progress and Poverty (Lause) defined urbanization as â€Å"This life of great cities is not the natural life of man.   He must, under such conditions, deteriorate, physically, mentally, and morally â€Å".   To consider his point, the author view that life must be maintained in a serene atmosphere and not in a busy city just like those old good days that red beans or the cocoa is enough to send every household child to a good school.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Henry George began musing on this concept when the new railroad transport was developed in California that made an influence on high land values and influx of ordinary people to city life.   That development in one place brought about overcrowding and had wayward implications on the sustainability of the natural environment.   However, his idea provided economic reforms that made improvements of the life of the working classes possible.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Cities are indications of developments and of the visible civilizations of the history of man.   It takes a process of transformation that is unique and at the same time diverse.   This work is aimed at explaining the town concepts during the period of industrialization from the beginning of mass transportation and birth of new cities in particular on how Geddes observed and analyze these processes. Sustainability of the Man-built Environment   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   It was concluded by Henry George that the man-built environment is something that will not last. However, Patrick Geddes the Leonardo da Vinci of the 20th century teaches and reaffirms that our world environment could be sustained provided that man cooperates in the process.   It has to be sustained in order that the life cycle of the young generation’s continues.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   His statement is not a contradiction to George’s philosophy but a possible solution to man’s current problems.   His reaffirmation brought to the world a new hope that even though life cycle is limited, this world is still something worthy to be cared for and it can endure. The positive attitude of George influences not only his neighbors but the human settlement at large during his time to the present.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   There are issues on industrialization which brings wealth but at the same time destroys the natural environment caused by pollutants. For this reason, Geddes made it clear that man do not live by the jingling of his coins.   There is always a chain effect if one resource is used in accordingly.   He provided a solution written in the Evergreen book that a sustainable world is as simple as making it comfortably green.   His conviction reminded even planners that if developments are unchecked it would create more disaster than improvements.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Globally, everyone breathe the same air that a poor or a developed nation breathes.   The current concern do not deals alone with affordability but also sustainability. With the pressing trend of modernization, comfortable living is expensive and value for money is usually a rare find. The problem of overcrowding in the cities and the lack of economic growth in the rural areas still remains to be a problem on poorly planned cities.   The increase of deteriorating cities will lead to the decline of the global sustainability.   The idea here is to provide developmental options that are definitely relevant to every cities of the world. His mottos â€Å"by creating we think and by living we learn was made to good use by educating people about their environment (Grewar).† The new housing design for workers, organizing his neighbors to renovate houses and build gardens made an indelible mark in his works which can still be seen in every postcard of the city’s Royal Mile that even Albert Einstein admired and has honored him (Grewar). The Garden City Movement Patrick Geddes three dimensional thinking (geography, economics and anthropology) places social sciences above math and logic, biology, chemistry and physics.   His belief that† the earth as a cooperative planet must teach people on how to treat properly their environment and is aimed specifically on educating children, improving the physical quality of life through biological knowledge by producing better medicines, and understanding human influence on ecology (Killiecrankie).† Geddes bridging social sciences with biology even influenced his biographer Lewis Mumford on the simple idea that man just like plants and animals thrived in healthy conditions which are expressed in one of the extracts of Geddes writings; â€Å"The world is mainly vast leaf-colony, growing on and forming a leafy soil, not a mere mineral mass, and we live not by the jingling of our coins, but by the fullness of our harvest. This is green world, with animals comparatively small, and all independent upon leaves.   By leaves we live (Grewar).†   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Mumford an architectural critic and is particularly noted for his study on urbanization of the environment regarded technology as the destroyer of environment even if he qualifies that electricity could lead to the improvements of the social spheres (University).   His works are indications that technology must be regulated. During the late 18th century Garden Cities began to evolve through the works of city and town planners particularly the works of Ebenezer Howard in UK influenced by the philosophy of Geddes new approach in urban planning called the garden city movement.   Howard began to build self-sustaining towns that combines convenience and industries located on agricultural sites (â€Å"Sir Ebenezer Howard†).† Howard realizes that no matter from what nation a man belongs, there is but one social issue which is difficult to solve and that is problems on housing and labor. This propelled many to advocate the new movement and increases the awareness on the concept of â€Å"decency of surroundings† and that includes, ample spaces, clean housing with gardens, and preservation of landscapes (Letchworth). The First Garden City   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Letchworth City is founded by Howard and is the first garden city of the world; in 1905 the garden city movement became involved in the exhibits of new housing called the workers cottage or housing for the working class in which some of it still stood today. Those cheap but strong and functional residences can be affordable to workers.   Some of these cottages made of wood or concrete can still be found in Letchworth streets and is now being conserved.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Some of the prototype housing called the workers cottages influences the human settlement design of this century.   This new housing designed sprawled even to the west for instance the workers cottages of Architect Maybeck of California and to the whole world at least giving man an accommodation that he humanly deserves. Mass Transportation   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Fast developments are due to improved transportation and communications.   The streets affect the life of all its inhabitants and this vision is very much encouraged in order to serve a huge population.   This is indeed very necessary but at the same time may lead to a city decline.   This entails thorough planning on how to maintain a good life in a cellular metropolis.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Victor Gruen a planning practitioner, mentioned in his last publicized works that â€Å"auto sprawl would cripple the global ecosystem and brings about physical and psychological starvation of the urbanized man (Hill).†Ã‚   Today, some cities plants a good number of trees for every parking slots or spaces created.   Planning theories must be integrated to transit that is useful to automobile cities and providing more mass transit and more freeways.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Automobile cities, needs more spaces unlike the old horse tracks during the colonial times.   Human settlement today cannot tolerate a waste of space in places where living condition is dense.   Somehow, these dense spaces are capable of providing the maximum comfort for man by means of mechanical equipments in buildings. In this cities life is fast and expensive.   Technology is a provision for man’s comfort and not a means to enslave but more often than not it is the other way around.   However, there are many fast developing cities that is capable of coping with the new technology because work is valued in congruent with the dignity of man.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Gruen proposes a plan that could justify economic productivity of big cities and at the same time create sub cities that would adapt to what he calls â€Å"megalopolitan sprawl†.   However, globalization could also mean going beyond ones land area.   There is still vast area of lands wanting to be developed. There are many nations that are in need to cope with the present dynamics of the new world technology.   And while there are other places where overpopulation is a problem there are affluent cities in the second millennium that the inverted population growth also presupposes danger. Conclusion   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   In the abstract written by Dr. Mervyn Miller, he mentioned the book written by the founder of Letchworth, â€Å"Tomorrow a Peaceful Path to Real Reform† written in 1898 is very much true to our society of today. He recalls that the garden city is a potent concept in the emergence of the 20th century cities.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Contemporary planners addressed the issue by following the course of people like Geddes.   However, due to the increase in the demand on the lease to life, those familiar workers cottages are considered mini-mansions of many career oriented people of today.   Ample spaces are defined as functional spaces due to the ever increasing cost per area of construction in square foot or in meters.   Coping with life that is becoming unsustainable is becoming a depressing problem even more than how George views it in his time. The internationalist who believes that nothing is gained by overcrowding still support the issue on the green environment that is very relevant today.   However, there are trends that are still needed to be discovered and be rediscovered especially within the new technology along on how this new ideas can be within the reach of everyone.   The key here is what kind of technology should be provided to sustain the ordinary man of the streets. The approach that Geddes concept has provided in his time is for the working class of the industrialized period.   That became the reason why today’s environmentalist regarded Geddes a steward in land use and its sustainability. Today, a number of men with the same aspirations of those Internationalist described is very much needed.   This fast growing old planet needs people who are a hundred percent human beings in the middle of the electro- mechanical world. Works Cited Grewar, Mindy. â€Å"Vivendo Discimus: Everything in the Garden Is Magnifique for the Anniversary Celebrations of a Great Scot.†Ã‚   (2004). 11 April 2008 . Hill, David R. † Sustainability, Victor Gruen, and the Cellular Metropolis.†Ã‚   (2008). 11 April 2008 . Killiecrankie. â€Å"Patrick Geddes 1854-1932.†Ã‚   (2008). 11 April 2008 . Lause, Mark. â€Å"Henry George.† 11 April 2008 . Letchworth. â€Å"Letchworth the First Garden City †   (2007). 11 April 2008 . â€Å"Sir Ebenezer Howard.†Ã‚   (2007). 11 April 2008 . University, Regent. â€Å"Lewis Mumford (1895-1988).†Ã‚   (2007). 11 April 2008 .   

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